Tuesday, October 15, 2019

How does the academic study of problem solving and thinking relate to Essay

How does the academic study of problem solving and thinking relate to everyday life - Essay Example Along with maturation, people obtain substantial competence that enables them to solve common problems encountered daily. (Holyoak 1995, p. 267) However, Anderson (1993, p. 39) explains, not everything requiring solution, like routine activities, is indeed problems. For example, summing-up a three-month electric bill, though requires solution is not a problem because one simply has to compute it either manually or electronically, but how to pay the bill with practically nothing left in one’s pocket is surely a problem. The difference here lies on the immediate availability of achieving the task. Computing the bill could be easily achieved with the simple knowledge of addition or much easier the use of calculator, but where to find the money to pay the bill not to be cut off power presents a problem, as there is no immediate solution to it. Hence a problem is determined by the gap between the present state and the target goal wherein the means to solve the gap is not immediatel y evident (Schwarz & Skurnik 2003, p. 267). Problem solving begins with problem identification (Rudd 2005, p. 11). Generally defined as the activity by which the goal of eliminating the gap is undertaken without certainty of success (Tallman, Leik, Gray, & Stafford, 1993, cited in Nelson, Brice & Gunby 2010, p.74), problem solving which could be correct or erroneous differs for every individual, because individual experiences and task demands, which problem solving entails, vary (Martinez 1998, p. 605). Similarly, the difficulty of solving problems differs in degree depending on the nature of the problem. Some could be easy; others could be truly hard or could never be solved at all. (Joswiak 2004, p. 19) ‘The relative ease of solving a problem will depend on how successful the solver has been in representing crucial elements of the task environment in his problem space’ (Simon, 1978, p. 276). The more exposed a person to varied task of compelling nature, the greater is the chance of that person to handle problems of similar/related nature. For example, an ex-marine has the greater chance of surviving a physical assault than a language teacher who has yet to experience physical violence. Moreover, problem solving has two aspects: The answer that which solve the problem, and the solution procedure by which way the answer is known (Robertson 2001, p. 6). With a variety of problems that people come across everyday solutions also vary by which Robertson (2001, pp. 6-11) says problems can also be categorised. One, what knowledge does the problem require – would it be â€Å"knowledge-lean† or â€Å"knowledge-rich† problems (p. 7)? For example, household maintenance though complex requires simple management, whereas ensuring national security is far more complicated that it requires expertise. Steif, Lobue, Kara, & Fay (2010, p. 135) suggest that the ability to determine fitted conceptual knowledge in order to solve a problem is cons idered a metacognitive skill. This according to Greeno (1978, p. 62) is learnable. Although, Gagne (1979) clarifies that what can be learned in problem solving are its specific aspects, cited as: "rules of syntax and mathematics," "knowledge about particular objects and events," "specific cognitive strategies" (cited in Mayer 1987, p. 111). Two, what is the nature of the goal? Is it technical, routine, domestic, political,

Blue Brain Essay Example for Free

Blue Brain Essay Today scientists are in research to create an arti? cial brain that can think,respond, take decision, and keep anything in memory. The main aim is to uploadhuman brain into machine. So that man can think, take decision without any effort. After the death of the body, the virtual brain will act as the man. So, even after thedeath of a person we will not loose the knowledge, intelligence, personalities, feelingsand memories of that man, that can be used for the development of the human society. Technology is growing faster than every thing. IBM is now in research to create avirtual brain, called â€Å"Blue brain†. If possible, this would be the ? rst virtual brainof the world. IBM, in partnership with scientists at Switzerland’s Ecole Polytech-nique Federale de Lausanne’s (EPFL) Brain and Mind Institute will begin simulatingthe brain’s biological systems and output the data as a working 3-dimensional modelthat will recreate the high-speed electro-chemical interactions that take place withinthe brain’s interior. These include cognitive functions such as language, learning,perception and memory in addition to brain malfunction such as psychiatric disorderslike depression and autism. From there, the modeling will expand to other regions of the brain and, if successful, shed light on the relationships between genetic, molecularand cognitive functions of the brain. The human brain has 100 billion neurons, nerve cells that enable us to adapt quickly to an immense array of stimuli. We use them to understand and respond to bright sunlight, a honking horn, the smell of chicken frying and anything else our sensors detect. To better understand some of those responses, researchers in Lausanne, Switzerland, recently launched an ambitious project called Blue Brain, which uses IBMs eServer Blue Gene, a supercomputer capable of processing 22. 8 trillion floating point operations per second (TFLOPS). Blue Brain is modeling the behavior of 10,000 highly complex neurons in rats neocortical columns (NCC), which are very similar to the NCCs in a human brain. The NCCs run throughout the brains gray matter and perform advanced computing. They are 0. 5mm in diameter and 2mm to 5mm in height and are arranged like the cells of a honeycomb. The first objective of Blue Brain is to build an accurate software replica, or template, of an NCC within two to three years, says Henry Markram, the principal researcher on Blue Brain and a professor at Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL). That first template will be modified for NCCs found in different brain regions and species, and then all the NCCs will be replicated to build a model of the neocortices of different species, he says. Such models will shed light on how memories are stored and retrieved, Markram says. This could reveal many exciting aspects of the [brain] circuits, such as the form of memories, memory capacity and how memories are lost. The modeling can help find vulnerabilities in the neocortex, which is useful because thats where brain disorders often originate. We may also be able to work out the best way to compensate and repair circuit errors, Markram says. The model could be used to develop and test treatment strategies for neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as autism, schizophrenia and depression, he adds. Having an accurate computer-based model of the brain would mean that some major brain experiments could be done in silicon rather than in a wet lab. A simulation that might take seconds on the supercomputer could replace a full days worth of lab research, Markram estimates. Ultimately, simulated results of brain activity could be matched with recorded brain activity in a person with a disease in order to reverse-engineer the circuit changes in diseases, he says. The real value of a simulation is that researchers can have access to data for every single neuron, adds IBMs Charles Peck, head of the Blue Brain project for IBM Research.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Soil Analysis of the Himalayan Mountain System

Soil Analysis of the Himalayan Mountain System Chapter- 4 ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES OF MORAINIC AND ALPINE ECOSYSTEMS Global warming/ enhanced greenhouse effect and the loss of biodiversity are the major environmental issues around the world. The greatest part of the worlds population lives in the tropical regions. Mountainous regions in many cases provide favourable conditions for water supply due to orographically enhanced convective precipitation. Earth scientists are examining ancient periods of extreme warmth, such as the Miocene climatic optimum of about 14.5-17 million years ago. Fossil floral and faunal evidences indicate that this was the warmest time of the past 35 million years; a mid-latitude temperature was as much as 60C higher than the present one. Many workers believe that high carbon dioxide levels, in combination with oceanographic changes, caused Miocene global warming by the green house effect. Pagani et al. (1999) present evidence for surprisingly low carbon dioxide levels of about 180-290ppm by volume throughout the early to late Miocene (9-25 million years). They concluded tha t green house warming by carbon dioxide couldnt explain Miocene warmth and other mechanism must have had a greater influence. Carbon dioxide is a trace gas in the Earths atmosphere, which exchanges between carbon reservoirs in particularly the oceans and the biosphere. Consequently atmospheric concentration shows temporal, local and regional fluctuations. Since the beginning of industrialization, its atmospheric concentration has increased. The 1974 mean concentration of atmospheric CO2 was about 330 ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 (Baes et. al., 1976), which is equivalent to 2574 x 1015 g CO2 702.4 x 1015 C assuming 5.14 x 1021 g as the mass of the atmosphere. This value is significantly higher than the amount of atmospheric CO2 in 1860 that was about 290 ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 (617.2 x 1015 g). Precise measurements of the atmospheric CO2 concentration started in 1957 at the South Pole, Antarctica (Brown and Keeling, 1965) and in 1958 at Mauna Loa, Hawaii (Pales and Keeling, 1965). Records from Mauna Loa show that the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has risen since 1958, from 315 mmol mol-1 to approximately 360 315 mmol mol-1 in 1963 (Boden et al., 1994). From these records and other measurements that began more recently, it is clear that the present rate of CO2 increase ranges between 1.5 and 2.5 mmol mol-1 per annum. In the context of the Indian Himalayan region, the effect of warming is apparent on the recession of glaciers (Valdiya, 1988), which is one of the climatic sensitive environmental indicators, and serves as a measure of the natural variability of climate of mountains over long time scales (Beniston et al., 1997). However no comprehensive long-term data on CO2 levels are available. The consumption of CO2 by photosynthesis on land is about 120 x 1015 g dry organic matter/year, which is equivalent to about 54 x 1015gC/yr (Leith and Whittaker, 1975). Variations in the atmospheric CO2 content on land are mainly due to the exchange of CO2 between vegetation and the atmosphere (Leith, 1963; Baumgartner, 1969). The process in this exchange is photosynthesis and respiration. The consumption of CO2 by the living plant material is balanced by a corresponding production of CO2 during respiration of the plants themselves and from decay of organic material, which occurs mainly in the soil through the activity of bacteria (soil respiration). The release of CO2 from the soil depends on the type, structure, moisture and temperature of the soil. The CO2 concentration in soil can be 1000 times higher than in air (Enoch and Dasberg, 1971). Due to these processes, diurnal variations in the atmospheric CO2 contents on ground level are resulted. High mountain ecosystems are considered vulnerable to climate change (Beniston, 1994; Grabherr et al., 1995; Theurillat and Guisan, 2001). The European Alps experienced a 20 C increase in annual minimum temperatures during the twentieth century, with a marked rise since the early 1980s (Beniston et al., 1997). Upward moving of alpine plants has been noticed (Grabherr et al., 1994; Pauli et al., 2001), community composition has changed at high alpine sites (Keller et al., 2000), and treeline species have responded to climate warming by invasion of the alpine zone or increased growth rates during the last decades (Paulsen et al., 2000). Vegetation at glaciers fronts is commonly affected by glacial fluctuations (Coe, 1967; Spence, 1989; Mizumo, 1998). Coe (1967) described vegetation zonation, plant colonization and the distribution of individual plant species on the slopes below the Tyndall and Lewis glaciers. Spence (1989) analyzed the advance of plant communities in response to the re treat of the Tyndall and Lewis glaciers for the period 1958- 1984. Mizumo (1998) addressed plant communities in response to more recent glacial retreat by conducting field research in 1992, 1994, 1996 and 1997. The studies illustrated the link between ice retreat and colonization near the Tyndall and Lewis glaciers. The concern about the future global climate warming and its geoecological consequences strongly urges development and analysis of climate sensitive biomonitoring systems. The natural elevational tree limit is often assumed to represent an ideal early warming line predicted to respond positionally, structurally and compositionally even to quite modest climate fluctuations. Several field studies in different parts of the world present that climate warming earlier in the 20th century (up to the 1950s 1960s) has caused tree limit advances (Kullman, 1998). Purohit (1991) also reported upward shifting of species in Garhwal Himalaya. The Himalayan mountain system is a conspicuous landmass characterised by its unique crescent shape, high orography, varied lithology and complex structure. The mountain system is rather of young geological age through the rock material it contains has a long history of sedimentation, metamorphism and magmatism from Proterozoic to Quaternary in age. Geologically, it occupies a vast terrain covering the northern boundary of India, entire Nepal, Bhutan and parts of China and Pakistan stretching from almost 720 E to 960 E meridians for about 2500 km in length. In terms of orography, the geographers have conceived four zones in the Himalaya across its long axis. From south to north, these are (i) the sub-Himalaya, comprising low hill ranges of Siwalik, not rising above 1,000 m in altitude; (ii) the Lesser Himalaya, comprising a series of mountain ranges not rising above 4000 m in altitude; (iii) the Great Himalaya, comprising very high mountain ranges with glaciers, rising above 6,000 m i n altitude and (iv) the Trans-Himalaya, Comprising very high mountain ranges with glaciers. The four orographic zones of the Himalaya are not strictly broad morpho-tectonic units though tectonism must have played a key role in varied orographic attainments of different zones. Their conceived boundaries do not also coincide with those of litho-stratigraphic or tectono-stratigraphic units. Because of the involvement of a large number of parameters of variable nature, the geomorphic units are expected to be diverse but cause specific, having close links with mechanism and crustal movements (Ghosh, et al., 1989). Soil is essential for the continued existence of life on the planet. Soil takes thousands of years to form and only few years to destroy their productivity as a result of erosion and other types of improper management. It is a three dimensional body consisting of solid, liquid and gaseous phase. It includes any part of earths crust, which through the process of weathering and incorporation of organic matter has become capable in securing and supporting plants. Living organisms and the transformation they perform have a profound effect on the ability of soils to provide food and fiber for expanding world population. Soils are used to produce crops, range and timber. Soil is basic to our survival and it is natures waste disposal medium and it serves as habitats for varied kinds of plants, birds, animals, and microorganisms. As a source of stores and transformers of plant nutrients, soil has a major influence on terrestrial ecosystems. Soil continuously recycles plant and animal remains , and they are major support systems for human life, determining the agricultural production capacity of the land (Anthwal, 2004). Soil is a natural product of the environment. Native soil forms from the parent material by action of climate (temperature, wind, and water), native vegetation and microbes. The shape of the land surface affects soil formation. It is also affected by the time it took for climate, vegetation, and microbes to create the soil. Soil varies greatly in time and space. Over time-scales relevant to geo-indicators, they have both stable characteristics (e.g. mineralogical composition and relative proportions of sand, silt and clay) and those that respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions (e.g. ground freezing). The latter characteristics include soil moisture and soil microbiota (e.g. nematodes, microbes), which are essential to fluxes of plant nutrients and greenhouse gases (Peirce, and Larson, 1996.). Most soils resist short-term climate change, but some may undergo irreversible change such as lateritic hardening and densification, podsolization, or large-scale erosion. Chemical degradation takes place because of depletion of soluble elements through rainwater leaching, over cropping and over grazing, or because of the accumulation of salts precipitated from rising ground water or irrigation schemes. It may also be caused by sewage containing toxic metals, precipitation of acidic and other airborne contaminants, as well as by persistent use of fertilizers and pesticides (Page et al., 1986). Physical degradation results from land clearing, erosion and compaction by machinery (Klute, 1986). The key soil indicators are texture (especially clay content), bulk density, aggregate stability and size distribution, and water-holding capacity (Anthwal, 2004). Soil consists of 45% mineral, 25% water, 25% air and 5% organic matter (both living and dead organisms). There are thousands of different soils throughout the world. Soil are classified on the basis of their parent material, texture, structure, and profile There are five key factors in soil formation: i) type of parent material; ii) climate; iii) overlying vegetation; iv) topography or slope; and v) time. Climate controls the distribution of vegetation or soil organisms. Together climate and vegetation/soil organisms often are called the active factors of soil formation (genesis). This is because, on gently undulating topography within a certain climatic and vegetative zone a characteristic or typical soil will develop unless parent material differences are very great (Anthwal, 2004). Thus, the tall and mid-grass prairie soils have developed across a variety of parent materials. Soil structure comprises the physical constitution of soil material as expressed by size, shape, and arrangement of solid particles and voids (Jongmans et al., 2001). Soil structure is an important soil property in many clayey, agricultural soils. Physical and chemical properties and also the nutrient status of the soil vary spatially due to the changing nature of the climate, parent material, physiographic position and vegetation (Behari et al., 2004). Soil brings together many ecosystem processes, integrating mineral and organic processes; and biological, physical and chemical processes (Arnold et al., 1990, Yaalon 1990). Soil may respond slowly to environmental changes than other elements of the ecosystem such as, the plants and animal do. Changes in soil organic matter can also indicate vegetation change, which can occur quickly because of climatic change (Almendinger, 1990). In high altitudes, soils are formed by the process of solifluction. Soils on the slopes above 300 are generally shallow due to erosion and mass wasting processes and usually have very thin surface horizons. Such skeletal soils have median to coarse texture depending on the type of material from which they have been derived. Glacial plants require water, mineral resources and support from substrate, which differ from alpine and lower altitude in many aspects. The plant life gets support by deeply weathered profile in moraine soils, which develops thin and mosaic type of vegetation. Most of the parent material is derived by mechanical weathering and the soils are rather coarse textured and stony. Permafrost occurs in many of the high mountains and the soils are typically cold and wet. The soils of the moraine region remain moist during the summer because drainage is impeded by permafrost (Gaur, 2002). In general, the north facing slopes support deep, moist and fertile soils. The south facing slopes, on the other hand, are precipitous and well exposed to denudation. These soils are shallow, dry and poor and are often devoid of any kind of regolith (Pandey, 1997). Based on various samples, Nand et al., (1989) finds negative correlation between soil pH and altitude and argues that decrease in pH with the increase in elevation is possibly accounted by high rainfall which facilitated leaching out of Calcium and Magnesium from surface soils. The soils are invariably rich in Potash, medium in Phosphorus and poor in Nitrogen contents. However, information on geo-morphological aspects, soil composition and mineral contents of alpine and moraine in Garhwal Himalaya are still lacking. Present investigation was aimed to carry out detail observations on soil composition of the alpine and moraine region of Garhwal Himalaya. 4.1. OBSERVATIONS As far as the recordings of abiotic environmental variables of morainic and alpine ecosystems of Dokriani Bamak are concerned, the atmospheric carbon dioxide and the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were recorded under the present study. As these are important for the present study. 4.1.1. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Diurnal variations in the atmospheric CO2 were recorded at Dokriani Bamak from May 2005- October 2005. Generally the concentration of CO2 was higher during night and early morning hours (0600-0800) and lower during daytime. However, there were fluctuations in the patterns of diurnal changes in CO2 concentration on daily basis. In the month of May 2005, carbon dioxide concentration ranged from a minimum of 375Â µmol mol-1 to a maximum of 395Â µmol mol-1. When the values were averaged for the measurement days the maximum and minimum values ranged from 378Â µmol mol-1 to 388Â µmol mol-1. A difference of 20Â µmol mol-1 was found between the maximum and minimum values recorded for the measurement days. When the values were averaged, a difference of 10Â µmol mol-1 was observed between maximum and minimum values. During the measurement period, CO2 concentrations varied from a minimum of 377ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 12 noon to a maximum of 400ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 0800 hrs in the month of June, 2005. When the CO2 values were averaged for 6 days, the difference between the minimum and maximum values was about 23ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1. In the month of July, levels of carbon dioxide concentrations ranged from a minimum of 369ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 to a maximum of 390ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1. When the values of the carbon dioxide concentrations for the measuring period were averaged, the difference between the minimum and maximum values was about 21ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1. Carbon dioxide concentration ranged from a minimum of 367ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 to a maximum of 409ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 during the month of August. When the values of carbon dioxide were averaged for the measurement days, the difference in the minimum and maximum values was about 42ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1. During the measurement period (September), CO2 concentrations varied from a minimum of 371ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 12 noon to a maximum of 389ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 0600 hrs indicating a difference of 18ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 between the maximum and minimum values. When the values of the measurement days were averaged the minimum and maximum values ranged from 375ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 to 387ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 and a difference of 12ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 was recorded. During the month of October, carbon dioxide levels ranged from a minimum of 372ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 1400 hrs to a maximum of 403ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 2000 hrs indicating a difference of 31ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1. When the values were averaged, the carbon dioxide levels ranged from a minimum of 376ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 to a maximum of 415ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1.A difference in the minimum and maximum values was found to be 39Â µmol mol-1 when the values were averaged for the measurements days. In the growing season (May-October) overall carbon dioxide concentration was recorded to be highest in the month of June and seasonally it was recorded highest during the month of October 4.1.2. A. Soil Physical Characteristics of Soil Soil Colour and Texture Soils of the study area tend to have distinct variations in colour both horizontally and vertically (Table 4.1). The colour of the soil varied with soil depth. It was dark yellowish brown at the depth of 10-20cm, 30-40cm of AS1 and AS2, brown at the depth of 0-10cm of AS1 and AS2 and yellowish brown at the depths of 20-30cm, 40-50cm, 50-60cm of AS1 and AS2). Whereas the soil colour was grayish brown at the depths of 0-10cm, 30-40cm, 50-60cm of MS1 and MS2, dark grayish brown at the depths of 10-20cm, 20-30cm of MS1 and MS2 and brown at the depth of 40-50cm of both the moraine sites (MS1 and MS2). Soil texture is the relative volume of sand, silt and clay particles in a soil. Soils of the study area had high proportion of silt followed by sand and clay (Table 4.2). Soil of the alpine sites was identified as silty loam category, whereas, the soil of the moraine was of silty clayey loam category. Soil Temperature The soil temperature depends on the amount of heat reaching the soil surface and dissipation of heat in soil. Figure 4.2 depicts soil temperature at all the sites in the active growth period. A maximum (13.440C) soil temperature was recorded during the month of July and minimum (4.770C) during the month of October at AS1. The soil temperature varied between 5.10C being the lowest during the month of October to 12.710C as maximum during the month of August at AS2. Soil temperature ranged from 3.240C (October) to 11.210C (July) at MS1. However, the soil temperature ranged from 3.40C (October) to 12.330C (July) at MS2. Soil Moisture (%) Moisture has a big influence on soils ability to compact. Some soils wont compact well until moisture is 7-8%. Â  Likewise, wet soil also doesnt compact well. The mean soil water percentage (Fig. 4.3) in study area fluctuated between a maximum of 83% (AS1) to a minimum of 15% (AS2). The values of soil water percentage ranged from a minimum of 8% (MS2) to a maximum of 80% (MS1). Soil water percentage was higher in the month of July at AS1 and during August at MS1 (. During the month of June, soil water percentage was recorded minimum in the lower depth (50-60cm) at both the sites. Water Holding Capacity (WHC) The mean water holding capacity of the soil varied from alpine sites to moraine sites (Table 4.4). It ranged from a maximum of 89.66% (August) to a minimum of 79.15% (May) at AS1. The minimum and maximum values at AS2 were 78.88% (May) to 89.66% (August), respectively. The maximum WHC was recorded to be 84.61 % during the month of September on upper layer (0-10 cm) at MS1 and minimum 60.36% during the month of May in the lower layer (50-60cm) at MS1. At MS2, WHC ranged from 60.66% (May) to 84.61% (September). However, maximum WHC was recorded in upper layers at both the sites of alpine and moraine. Soil pH The soil pH varied from site to site during the course of the present study (Table 4.5). Mean pH values of all the sites are presented in Figure 4.4 The soil of the study area was acidic. Soil of the moraine sites was more acidic than that of the alpine sites. Soil pH ranged from 4.4 to 5.3 (AS1), 4.5 to 5.2 (AS2), 4.9 to 6.1 (MS1) and 4.8 to 5.7 (MS2). 4.1.2 B. Chemical Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon (%): Soil organic carbon (SOC) varied with depths and months at both the alpine and moraine sites (Table 4.6). High percentage of organic carbon was observed in the upper layer of all sites during the entire period of study. Soil organic C decreased with depth and it was lowest in lower layers at all the sites. Soil organic carbon was maximum (5.1%) during July at AS1 because of high decomposition of litter, while it was minimum (4.2%) during October due to high uptake by plants in the uppermost layer (0-10 cm). A maximum (5.0%) SOC was found during the month of July and minimum (4.1%) during October at AS2. At the moraine sites, maximum (3.58%, 3.73%) SOC was found during June and minimum (1.5% and 1.9%) during August at MS1 and MS2 respectively. Phosphorus (%): A low amount of phosphorus was observed from May to August which increased during September and October. The mean phosphorus percentage ranged from 0.02 Â ± 0.01 to 0.07 Â ± 0.03 at AS1 and AS2. It was 0.03Â ±0.01 to 0.03Â ±0.02 at MS1 and MS2. Maximum percentage of phosphorus was estimated to be 0.09 in the uppermost layer (0-10 cm) during October at AS1. The lower layer (40-50 cm) of soil horizon contained a minimum of 0.01% phosphorus during September at AS1 and AS2. In the moraine sites (MS1 and MS2), maximum phosphorus percentage of 0.03 Â ±0.01 was estimated in the upper layers (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm) while it was found to be minimum (0.02Â ±0.01) in the lower layers (30-40 cm). Overall, a decreasing trend in amount of phosphorus was found with depth in alpine as well as moraine sites Potassium (%): A decline in potassium contents was also observed with declining depth during the active growing season. Maximum value of potassium was found in the uppermost layer (0-10 cm) at all the sites. The mean values ranged from 0.71Â ±0.02 to 46Â ±0.06 at AS1 while it was 0.71Â ±0.02 to 0.47Â ±0.05 at AS2. In the moraine sites the values ranged from a minimum of 0.33 Â ±0.06 to a maximum of 0.59Â ±0.05 in the MS1 and from 0.59Â ±0.05 to 0.32Â ±0.06 at MS2. In the upper layer of soil horizon (0-10 cm), maximum value of 0.74 %, 0.75% of potassium was observed during the month of July at AS1 and AS2. While the values were maximum in the month of October at moraine sites MS1 and MS2 having 0.66% and 0.65% respectively Nitrogen (%): Highest percentage of nitrogen was found in the upper layers at all the sites. Maximum percentage of nitrogen were found during the month of July-August (0.25%, 0.25 and 0.26%, 0.25%) at AS1 and AS2, respectively. Maximum values of 0.18% and 0.15% respectively were found during the month of June at the moraine sites MS1 and MS2. The nitrogen percentage ranged from 0.23Â ±0.02 to 0.04Â ±0.01% at AS1. However, it ranged from a minimum of 0.05Â ±0.01 to 0.24Â ±0.02% at AS2. The nitrogen percentage ranged from a minimum of 0.03Â ±0.01, 0.02Â ±0.04% to a maximum of 12Â ±0.03, 13Â ±0.01%, respectively at MS1 and MS2 Overall, a decreasing trend was noticed in the nitrogen percentage with depth at both the alpine and moraine sites. 4.2. DISCUSSION Soil has a close relationship with geomorphology and vegetation type of the area (Gaur, 2002). Any change in the geomorphological process and vegetational pattern influences the pedogenic processes. However, variability in soil is a characteristic even within same geomorphic position (Gaur, 2002). Jenney (1941) in his discussion on organisms as a soil forming factors treated vegetation both as an independent and as dependent variable. In order to examine the role of vegetation as an independent variable, it would be possible to study the properties of soil as influenced by vegetation while all other soil forming factors such as climate, parent material, topography and time are maintaining at a particular constellation. Many soil properties may be related to a climatic situation revealing thousand years ago (e.g. humid period during late glacial or the Holocene in the Alps and Andes (Korner, 1999). The soil forming processes are reflected in the colour of the surface soil (Pandey, 1997). The combination of iron oxides and organic content gives many soil types a brown colour (Anthwal, 2004). Many darker soils are not warmer than adjacent lighter coloured soils because of the temperature modifying effect of the moisture, in fact they may be cooler (Pandey, 1997). The alpine sites of the resent study has soil colour varying from dark yellowish brown/yellowish brown to brown at different depths. Likewise, at the moraine sites, the soil colour was dark grayish brown/grayish brown to brown. The dark coloured soils of the moraine and alpine sites having high humus contents absorb more heat than light coloured soils. Therefore, the dark soils hold more water. Water requires relatively large amount of heat than the soil minerals to raise its temperature and it also absorbs considerable heat for evaporation. At all sites, dark colour of soil was found due to high organic contents by the addition of litter. Soil texture is an important modifying factor in relation to the proportion of precipitation that enters the soil and is available to plants (Pandey, 1997). Texture refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay in the soil. Sandy soil is light or coarse-textured, whereas, the clay soils are heavy or fine-textured. Sand holds less moisture per unit volume, but permits more rapid percolation of precipitated water than silt and clay. Clay tends to increase the water-holding capacity of the soil. Loamy soils have a balanced sand, silt, and clay composition and are thus superior for plant growth (Pidwirny, 2004). Soil of the alpine zone of Dokriani Bamak was silty predominated by clay and loam, whereas the soil of moraine zone was silty predominated by sand and clay. There is a close relationship between atmospheric temperature and soil temperature. The high organic matter (humus) help in retaining more soil water. During summers, high radiations with greater insulation period enhance the atmospheric temperature resulted in the greater evaporation of soil water. In the monsoon months (July-August) the high rainfall increased soil moisture under relative atmospheric and soil temperature due to cloud-filter radiations (Pandey, 1997). Owing to September rainfall, atmospheric and soil temperatures decreased. The soil moisture is controlled by atmospheric temperature coupled with absorption of water by plants. During October, occasional rainfall and strong cold winds lower down the atmospheric temperature further. The soil temperature remains more or less intact from the outer influence due to a slight frost layer as well as vegetation cover. Soil temperature was recorded low at the moraine sites than the alpine sites. During May, insulation period in creases with increase in the atmospheric and soil temperature and it decreases during rainfall. The increasing temperature influences soil moisture adversely and an equilibrium is attained only after the first monsoon showers in the month of June which continued till August. Donahue et al. (1987) stated that no levelled land with a slope at right angle to the Sun would receive more heat per soil area and will warm faster than the flat surface. The soil layer impermeable to moisture have been cited as the reason for treelessness in part of the tropics, wherein its absence savanna develops (Beard, 1953). The resulting water logging of soil during the rainy season creates conditions not suitable for the growth of trees capable of surviving the dry season. The water holding capacity of the soil is determined by several factors. Most important among these are soil texture or size of particles, porosity and the amount of expansible organic matter and colloidal clay (Pandey, 1997). Water is held as thin film upon the surface of the particles and runs together forming drops in saturated soils, the amount necessarily increases with an increase in the water holding surface. Organic matter affects water contents directly by retaining water in large amount on the extensive surfaces of its colloidal constituents and also by holding it like a sponge in its less decayed portion. It also had an indirect effect through soil structure. Sand particles loosely cemented together by it, hence, percolation is decreased and water-holding capacity increased. Although fine textured soil can hold more water and thus more total water holding capacity but maximum available water is held in moderate textured soil. Porosity in soil consists of that portion of the soil volume not occupied by solids, either mineral or organic material. Under natural conditions, the pore spaces are occupied at all times by air and water. Pore spaces are irregular in shape in sand than the clay. The most rapid water and air movement is observed in sands than strongly aggregated soils. The pH of alpine sites ranged from 4.4 to 5.3 and it ranged from 4.8 to 6.1 in moraine sites of Dokriani Bamak. It indicated the acidic nature of the soil. The moraine sites were more acidic than the alpine sites. Acidity of soil is exhibited due to the presence of different acids. The organic matter and nitrogen contents inhibit the acidity of soil. The present observations pertaining to the soil pH (4.4 to 5.3 and 4.8 to 6.1) were more or less in the same range as reported for other meadows and moraine zones. Ram (1988) reported pH from 4.0-6.0 in Rudranath and Gaur (2002) on Chorabari. These pH ranges are lower than the oak and pine forests of lower altitudes of Himalayan region as observed by Singh and Singh, 1987 (pH:6.0-6.3). Furthermore, pH increased with depth. Bliss (1963) analyzed that in all types of soil, pH was low in upper layers (4.0-4.30) and it increased (4.6-4.9) in lower layer at New Hampshire due to reduction in organic matter. Das et al. (1988) reported the simil ar results in the sub alpine areas of Eastern Himalayas. All these reports support the present findings on Dokriani Bamak strongly. A potent acidic soil is intensively eroded and it has lower exchangeable cation, and possesses least microbial activity (Donahue et al., 1987). Misra et al., 1970 also observed higher acidity in the soil in the region where high precipitation results leaching. Koslowska (1934) demonstrated that when plants were grown under conditions of known pH, they make the culture medium either more acidic or alkaline and that this property differed according to the species. Soil properties may ch Soil Analysis of the Himalayan Mountain System Soil Analysis of the Himalayan Mountain System Chapter- 4 ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES OF MORAINIC AND ALPINE ECOSYSTEMS Global warming/ enhanced greenhouse effect and the loss of biodiversity are the major environmental issues around the world. The greatest part of the worlds population lives in the tropical regions. Mountainous regions in many cases provide favourable conditions for water supply due to orographically enhanced convective precipitation. Earth scientists are examining ancient periods of extreme warmth, such as the Miocene climatic optimum of about 14.5-17 million years ago. Fossil floral and faunal evidences indicate that this was the warmest time of the past 35 million years; a mid-latitude temperature was as much as 60C higher than the present one. Many workers believe that high carbon dioxide levels, in combination with oceanographic changes, caused Miocene global warming by the green house effect. Pagani et al. (1999) present evidence for surprisingly low carbon dioxide levels of about 180-290ppm by volume throughout the early to late Miocene (9-25 million years). They concluded tha t green house warming by carbon dioxide couldnt explain Miocene warmth and other mechanism must have had a greater influence. Carbon dioxide is a trace gas in the Earths atmosphere, which exchanges between carbon reservoirs in particularly the oceans and the biosphere. Consequently atmospheric concentration shows temporal, local and regional fluctuations. Since the beginning of industrialization, its atmospheric concentration has increased. The 1974 mean concentration of atmospheric CO2 was about 330 ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 (Baes et. al., 1976), which is equivalent to 2574 x 1015 g CO2 702.4 x 1015 C assuming 5.14 x 1021 g as the mass of the atmosphere. This value is significantly higher than the amount of atmospheric CO2 in 1860 that was about 290 ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 (617.2 x 1015 g). Precise measurements of the atmospheric CO2 concentration started in 1957 at the South Pole, Antarctica (Brown and Keeling, 1965) and in 1958 at Mauna Loa, Hawaii (Pales and Keeling, 1965). Records from Mauna Loa show that the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has risen since 1958, from 315 mmol mol-1 to approximately 360 315 mmol mol-1 in 1963 (Boden et al., 1994). From these records and other measurements that began more recently, it is clear that the present rate of CO2 increase ranges between 1.5 and 2.5 mmol mol-1 per annum. In the context of the Indian Himalayan region, the effect of warming is apparent on the recession of glaciers (Valdiya, 1988), which is one of the climatic sensitive environmental indicators, and serves as a measure of the natural variability of climate of mountains over long time scales (Beniston et al., 1997). However no comprehensive long-term data on CO2 levels are available. The consumption of CO2 by photosynthesis on land is about 120 x 1015 g dry organic matter/year, which is equivalent to about 54 x 1015gC/yr (Leith and Whittaker, 1975). Variations in the atmospheric CO2 content on land are mainly due to the exchange of CO2 between vegetation and the atmosphere (Leith, 1963; Baumgartner, 1969). The process in this exchange is photosynthesis and respiration. The consumption of CO2 by the living plant material is balanced by a corresponding production of CO2 during respiration of the plants themselves and from decay of organic material, which occurs mainly in the soil through the activity of bacteria (soil respiration). The release of CO2 from the soil depends on the type, structure, moisture and temperature of the soil. The CO2 concentration in soil can be 1000 times higher than in air (Enoch and Dasberg, 1971). Due to these processes, diurnal variations in the atmospheric CO2 contents on ground level are resulted. High mountain ecosystems are considered vulnerable to climate change (Beniston, 1994; Grabherr et al., 1995; Theurillat and Guisan, 2001). The European Alps experienced a 20 C increase in annual minimum temperatures during the twentieth century, with a marked rise since the early 1980s (Beniston et al., 1997). Upward moving of alpine plants has been noticed (Grabherr et al., 1994; Pauli et al., 2001), community composition has changed at high alpine sites (Keller et al., 2000), and treeline species have responded to climate warming by invasion of the alpine zone or increased growth rates during the last decades (Paulsen et al., 2000). Vegetation at glaciers fronts is commonly affected by glacial fluctuations (Coe, 1967; Spence, 1989; Mizumo, 1998). Coe (1967) described vegetation zonation, plant colonization and the distribution of individual plant species on the slopes below the Tyndall and Lewis glaciers. Spence (1989) analyzed the advance of plant communities in response to the re treat of the Tyndall and Lewis glaciers for the period 1958- 1984. Mizumo (1998) addressed plant communities in response to more recent glacial retreat by conducting field research in 1992, 1994, 1996 and 1997. The studies illustrated the link between ice retreat and colonization near the Tyndall and Lewis glaciers. The concern about the future global climate warming and its geoecological consequences strongly urges development and analysis of climate sensitive biomonitoring systems. The natural elevational tree limit is often assumed to represent an ideal early warming line predicted to respond positionally, structurally and compositionally even to quite modest climate fluctuations. Several field studies in different parts of the world present that climate warming earlier in the 20th century (up to the 1950s 1960s) has caused tree limit advances (Kullman, 1998). Purohit (1991) also reported upward shifting of species in Garhwal Himalaya. The Himalayan mountain system is a conspicuous landmass characterised by its unique crescent shape, high orography, varied lithology and complex structure. The mountain system is rather of young geological age through the rock material it contains has a long history of sedimentation, metamorphism and magmatism from Proterozoic to Quaternary in age. Geologically, it occupies a vast terrain covering the northern boundary of India, entire Nepal, Bhutan and parts of China and Pakistan stretching from almost 720 E to 960 E meridians for about 2500 km in length. In terms of orography, the geographers have conceived four zones in the Himalaya across its long axis. From south to north, these are (i) the sub-Himalaya, comprising low hill ranges of Siwalik, not rising above 1,000 m in altitude; (ii) the Lesser Himalaya, comprising a series of mountain ranges not rising above 4000 m in altitude; (iii) the Great Himalaya, comprising very high mountain ranges with glaciers, rising above 6,000 m i n altitude and (iv) the Trans-Himalaya, Comprising very high mountain ranges with glaciers. The four orographic zones of the Himalaya are not strictly broad morpho-tectonic units though tectonism must have played a key role in varied orographic attainments of different zones. Their conceived boundaries do not also coincide with those of litho-stratigraphic or tectono-stratigraphic units. Because of the involvement of a large number of parameters of variable nature, the geomorphic units are expected to be diverse but cause specific, having close links with mechanism and crustal movements (Ghosh, et al., 1989). Soil is essential for the continued existence of life on the planet. Soil takes thousands of years to form and only few years to destroy their productivity as a result of erosion and other types of improper management. It is a three dimensional body consisting of solid, liquid and gaseous phase. It includes any part of earths crust, which through the process of weathering and incorporation of organic matter has become capable in securing and supporting plants. Living organisms and the transformation they perform have a profound effect on the ability of soils to provide food and fiber for expanding world population. Soils are used to produce crops, range and timber. Soil is basic to our survival and it is natures waste disposal medium and it serves as habitats for varied kinds of plants, birds, animals, and microorganisms. As a source of stores and transformers of plant nutrients, soil has a major influence on terrestrial ecosystems. Soil continuously recycles plant and animal remains , and they are major support systems for human life, determining the agricultural production capacity of the land (Anthwal, 2004). Soil is a natural product of the environment. Native soil forms from the parent material by action of climate (temperature, wind, and water), native vegetation and microbes. The shape of the land surface affects soil formation. It is also affected by the time it took for climate, vegetation, and microbes to create the soil. Soil varies greatly in time and space. Over time-scales relevant to geo-indicators, they have both stable characteristics (e.g. mineralogical composition and relative proportions of sand, silt and clay) and those that respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions (e.g. ground freezing). The latter characteristics include soil moisture and soil microbiota (e.g. nematodes, microbes), which are essential to fluxes of plant nutrients and greenhouse gases (Peirce, and Larson, 1996.). Most soils resist short-term climate change, but some may undergo irreversible change such as lateritic hardening and densification, podsolization, or large-scale erosion. Chemical degradation takes place because of depletion of soluble elements through rainwater leaching, over cropping and over grazing, or because of the accumulation of salts precipitated from rising ground water or irrigation schemes. It may also be caused by sewage containing toxic metals, precipitation of acidic and other airborne contaminants, as well as by persistent use of fertilizers and pesticides (Page et al., 1986). Physical degradation results from land clearing, erosion and compaction by machinery (Klute, 1986). The key soil indicators are texture (especially clay content), bulk density, aggregate stability and size distribution, and water-holding capacity (Anthwal, 2004). Soil consists of 45% mineral, 25% water, 25% air and 5% organic matter (both living and dead organisms). There are thousands of different soils throughout the world. Soil are classified on the basis of their parent material, texture, structure, and profile There are five key factors in soil formation: i) type of parent material; ii) climate; iii) overlying vegetation; iv) topography or slope; and v) time. Climate controls the distribution of vegetation or soil organisms. Together climate and vegetation/soil organisms often are called the active factors of soil formation (genesis). This is because, on gently undulating topography within a certain climatic and vegetative zone a characteristic or typical soil will develop unless parent material differences are very great (Anthwal, 2004). Thus, the tall and mid-grass prairie soils have developed across a variety of parent materials. Soil structure comprises the physical constitution of soil material as expressed by size, shape, and arrangement of solid particles and voids (Jongmans et al., 2001). Soil structure is an important soil property in many clayey, agricultural soils. Physical and chemical properties and also the nutrient status of the soil vary spatially due to the changing nature of the climate, parent material, physiographic position and vegetation (Behari et al., 2004). Soil brings together many ecosystem processes, integrating mineral and organic processes; and biological, physical and chemical processes (Arnold et al., 1990, Yaalon 1990). Soil may respond slowly to environmental changes than other elements of the ecosystem such as, the plants and animal do. Changes in soil organic matter can also indicate vegetation change, which can occur quickly because of climatic change (Almendinger, 1990). In high altitudes, soils are formed by the process of solifluction. Soils on the slopes above 300 are generally shallow due to erosion and mass wasting processes and usually have very thin surface horizons. Such skeletal soils have median to coarse texture depending on the type of material from which they have been derived. Glacial plants require water, mineral resources and support from substrate, which differ from alpine and lower altitude in many aspects. The plant life gets support by deeply weathered profile in moraine soils, which develops thin and mosaic type of vegetation. Most of the parent material is derived by mechanical weathering and the soils are rather coarse textured and stony. Permafrost occurs in many of the high mountains and the soils are typically cold and wet. The soils of the moraine region remain moist during the summer because drainage is impeded by permafrost (Gaur, 2002). In general, the north facing slopes support deep, moist and fertile soils. The south facing slopes, on the other hand, are precipitous and well exposed to denudation. These soils are shallow, dry and poor and are often devoid of any kind of regolith (Pandey, 1997). Based on various samples, Nand et al., (1989) finds negative correlation between soil pH and altitude and argues that decrease in pH with the increase in elevation is possibly accounted by high rainfall which facilitated leaching out of Calcium and Magnesium from surface soils. The soils are invariably rich in Potash, medium in Phosphorus and poor in Nitrogen contents. However, information on geo-morphological aspects, soil composition and mineral contents of alpine and moraine in Garhwal Himalaya are still lacking. Present investigation was aimed to carry out detail observations on soil composition of the alpine and moraine region of Garhwal Himalaya. 4.1. OBSERVATIONS As far as the recordings of abiotic environmental variables of morainic and alpine ecosystems of Dokriani Bamak are concerned, the atmospheric carbon dioxide and the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were recorded under the present study. As these are important for the present study. 4.1.1. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Diurnal variations in the atmospheric CO2 were recorded at Dokriani Bamak from May 2005- October 2005. Generally the concentration of CO2 was higher during night and early morning hours (0600-0800) and lower during daytime. However, there were fluctuations in the patterns of diurnal changes in CO2 concentration on daily basis. In the month of May 2005, carbon dioxide concentration ranged from a minimum of 375Â µmol mol-1 to a maximum of 395Â µmol mol-1. When the values were averaged for the measurement days the maximum and minimum values ranged from 378Â µmol mol-1 to 388Â µmol mol-1. A difference of 20Â µmol mol-1 was found between the maximum and minimum values recorded for the measurement days. When the values were averaged, a difference of 10Â µmol mol-1 was observed between maximum and minimum values. During the measurement period, CO2 concentrations varied from a minimum of 377ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 12 noon to a maximum of 400ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 0800 hrs in the month of June, 2005. When the CO2 values were averaged for 6 days, the difference between the minimum and maximum values was about 23ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1. In the month of July, levels of carbon dioxide concentrations ranged from a minimum of 369ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 to a maximum of 390ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1. When the values of the carbon dioxide concentrations for the measuring period were averaged, the difference between the minimum and maximum values was about 21ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1. Carbon dioxide concentration ranged from a minimum of 367ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 to a maximum of 409ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 during the month of August. When the values of carbon dioxide were averaged for the measurement days, the difference in the minimum and maximum values was about 42ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1. During the measurement period (September), CO2 concentrations varied from a minimum of 371ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 12 noon to a maximum of 389ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 0600 hrs indicating a difference of 18ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 between the maximum and minimum values. When the values of the measurement days were averaged the minimum and maximum values ranged from 375ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 to 387ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 and a difference of 12ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 was recorded. During the month of October, carbon dioxide levels ranged from a minimum of 372ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 1400 hrs to a maximum of 403ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 at 2000 hrs indicating a difference of 31ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1. When the values were averaged, the carbon dioxide levels ranged from a minimum of 376ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1 to a maximum of 415ÃŽ ¼mol mol-1.A difference in the minimum and maximum values was found to be 39Â µmol mol-1 when the values were averaged for the measurements days. In the growing season (May-October) overall carbon dioxide concentration was recorded to be highest in the month of June and seasonally it was recorded highest during the month of October 4.1.2. A. Soil Physical Characteristics of Soil Soil Colour and Texture Soils of the study area tend to have distinct variations in colour both horizontally and vertically (Table 4.1). The colour of the soil varied with soil depth. It was dark yellowish brown at the depth of 10-20cm, 30-40cm of AS1 and AS2, brown at the depth of 0-10cm of AS1 and AS2 and yellowish brown at the depths of 20-30cm, 40-50cm, 50-60cm of AS1 and AS2). Whereas the soil colour was grayish brown at the depths of 0-10cm, 30-40cm, 50-60cm of MS1 and MS2, dark grayish brown at the depths of 10-20cm, 20-30cm of MS1 and MS2 and brown at the depth of 40-50cm of both the moraine sites (MS1 and MS2). Soil texture is the relative volume of sand, silt and clay particles in a soil. Soils of the study area had high proportion of silt followed by sand and clay (Table 4.2). Soil of the alpine sites was identified as silty loam category, whereas, the soil of the moraine was of silty clayey loam category. Soil Temperature The soil temperature depends on the amount of heat reaching the soil surface and dissipation of heat in soil. Figure 4.2 depicts soil temperature at all the sites in the active growth period. A maximum (13.440C) soil temperature was recorded during the month of July and minimum (4.770C) during the month of October at AS1. The soil temperature varied between 5.10C being the lowest during the month of October to 12.710C as maximum during the month of August at AS2. Soil temperature ranged from 3.240C (October) to 11.210C (July) at MS1. However, the soil temperature ranged from 3.40C (October) to 12.330C (July) at MS2. Soil Moisture (%) Moisture has a big influence on soils ability to compact. Some soils wont compact well until moisture is 7-8%. Â  Likewise, wet soil also doesnt compact well. The mean soil water percentage (Fig. 4.3) in study area fluctuated between a maximum of 83% (AS1) to a minimum of 15% (AS2). The values of soil water percentage ranged from a minimum of 8% (MS2) to a maximum of 80% (MS1). Soil water percentage was higher in the month of July at AS1 and during August at MS1 (. During the month of June, soil water percentage was recorded minimum in the lower depth (50-60cm) at both the sites. Water Holding Capacity (WHC) The mean water holding capacity of the soil varied from alpine sites to moraine sites (Table 4.4). It ranged from a maximum of 89.66% (August) to a minimum of 79.15% (May) at AS1. The minimum and maximum values at AS2 were 78.88% (May) to 89.66% (August), respectively. The maximum WHC was recorded to be 84.61 % during the month of September on upper layer (0-10 cm) at MS1 and minimum 60.36% during the month of May in the lower layer (50-60cm) at MS1. At MS2, WHC ranged from 60.66% (May) to 84.61% (September). However, maximum WHC was recorded in upper layers at both the sites of alpine and moraine. Soil pH The soil pH varied from site to site during the course of the present study (Table 4.5). Mean pH values of all the sites are presented in Figure 4.4 The soil of the study area was acidic. Soil of the moraine sites was more acidic than that of the alpine sites. Soil pH ranged from 4.4 to 5.3 (AS1), 4.5 to 5.2 (AS2), 4.9 to 6.1 (MS1) and 4.8 to 5.7 (MS2). 4.1.2 B. Chemical Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon (%): Soil organic carbon (SOC) varied with depths and months at both the alpine and moraine sites (Table 4.6). High percentage of organic carbon was observed in the upper layer of all sites during the entire period of study. Soil organic C decreased with depth and it was lowest in lower layers at all the sites. Soil organic carbon was maximum (5.1%) during July at AS1 because of high decomposition of litter, while it was minimum (4.2%) during October due to high uptake by plants in the uppermost layer (0-10 cm). A maximum (5.0%) SOC was found during the month of July and minimum (4.1%) during October at AS2. At the moraine sites, maximum (3.58%, 3.73%) SOC was found during June and minimum (1.5% and 1.9%) during August at MS1 and MS2 respectively. Phosphorus (%): A low amount of phosphorus was observed from May to August which increased during September and October. The mean phosphorus percentage ranged from 0.02 Â ± 0.01 to 0.07 Â ± 0.03 at AS1 and AS2. It was 0.03Â ±0.01 to 0.03Â ±0.02 at MS1 and MS2. Maximum percentage of phosphorus was estimated to be 0.09 in the uppermost layer (0-10 cm) during October at AS1. The lower layer (40-50 cm) of soil horizon contained a minimum of 0.01% phosphorus during September at AS1 and AS2. In the moraine sites (MS1 and MS2), maximum phosphorus percentage of 0.03 Â ±0.01 was estimated in the upper layers (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm) while it was found to be minimum (0.02Â ±0.01) in the lower layers (30-40 cm). Overall, a decreasing trend in amount of phosphorus was found with depth in alpine as well as moraine sites Potassium (%): A decline in potassium contents was also observed with declining depth during the active growing season. Maximum value of potassium was found in the uppermost layer (0-10 cm) at all the sites. The mean values ranged from 0.71Â ±0.02 to 46Â ±0.06 at AS1 while it was 0.71Â ±0.02 to 0.47Â ±0.05 at AS2. In the moraine sites the values ranged from a minimum of 0.33 Â ±0.06 to a maximum of 0.59Â ±0.05 in the MS1 and from 0.59Â ±0.05 to 0.32Â ±0.06 at MS2. In the upper layer of soil horizon (0-10 cm), maximum value of 0.74 %, 0.75% of potassium was observed during the month of July at AS1 and AS2. While the values were maximum in the month of October at moraine sites MS1 and MS2 having 0.66% and 0.65% respectively Nitrogen (%): Highest percentage of nitrogen was found in the upper layers at all the sites. Maximum percentage of nitrogen were found during the month of July-August (0.25%, 0.25 and 0.26%, 0.25%) at AS1 and AS2, respectively. Maximum values of 0.18% and 0.15% respectively were found during the month of June at the moraine sites MS1 and MS2. The nitrogen percentage ranged from 0.23Â ±0.02 to 0.04Â ±0.01% at AS1. However, it ranged from a minimum of 0.05Â ±0.01 to 0.24Â ±0.02% at AS2. The nitrogen percentage ranged from a minimum of 0.03Â ±0.01, 0.02Â ±0.04% to a maximum of 12Â ±0.03, 13Â ±0.01%, respectively at MS1 and MS2 Overall, a decreasing trend was noticed in the nitrogen percentage with depth at both the alpine and moraine sites. 4.2. DISCUSSION Soil has a close relationship with geomorphology and vegetation type of the area (Gaur, 2002). Any change in the geomorphological process and vegetational pattern influences the pedogenic processes. However, variability in soil is a characteristic even within same geomorphic position (Gaur, 2002). Jenney (1941) in his discussion on organisms as a soil forming factors treated vegetation both as an independent and as dependent variable. In order to examine the role of vegetation as an independent variable, it would be possible to study the properties of soil as influenced by vegetation while all other soil forming factors such as climate, parent material, topography and time are maintaining at a particular constellation. Many soil properties may be related to a climatic situation revealing thousand years ago (e.g. humid period during late glacial or the Holocene in the Alps and Andes (Korner, 1999). The soil forming processes are reflected in the colour of the surface soil (Pandey, 1997). The combination of iron oxides and organic content gives many soil types a brown colour (Anthwal, 2004). Many darker soils are not warmer than adjacent lighter coloured soils because of the temperature modifying effect of the moisture, in fact they may be cooler (Pandey, 1997). The alpine sites of the resent study has soil colour varying from dark yellowish brown/yellowish brown to brown at different depths. Likewise, at the moraine sites, the soil colour was dark grayish brown/grayish brown to brown. The dark coloured soils of the moraine and alpine sites having high humus contents absorb more heat than light coloured soils. Therefore, the dark soils hold more water. Water requires relatively large amount of heat than the soil minerals to raise its temperature and it also absorbs considerable heat for evaporation. At all sites, dark colour of soil was found due to high organic contents by the addition of litter. Soil texture is an important modifying factor in relation to the proportion of precipitation that enters the soil and is available to plants (Pandey, 1997). Texture refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay in the soil. Sandy soil is light or coarse-textured, whereas, the clay soils are heavy or fine-textured. Sand holds less moisture per unit volume, but permits more rapid percolation of precipitated water than silt and clay. Clay tends to increase the water-holding capacity of the soil. Loamy soils have a balanced sand, silt, and clay composition and are thus superior for plant growth (Pidwirny, 2004). Soil of the alpine zone of Dokriani Bamak was silty predominated by clay and loam, whereas the soil of moraine zone was silty predominated by sand and clay. There is a close relationship between atmospheric temperature and soil temperature. The high organic matter (humus) help in retaining more soil water. During summers, high radiations with greater insulation period enhance the atmospheric temperature resulted in the greater evaporation of soil water. In the monsoon months (July-August) the high rainfall increased soil moisture under relative atmospheric and soil temperature due to cloud-filter radiations (Pandey, 1997). Owing to September rainfall, atmospheric and soil temperatures decreased. The soil moisture is controlled by atmospheric temperature coupled with absorption of water by plants. During October, occasional rainfall and strong cold winds lower down the atmospheric temperature further. The soil temperature remains more or less intact from the outer influence due to a slight frost layer as well as vegetation cover. Soil temperature was recorded low at the moraine sites than the alpine sites. During May, insulation period in creases with increase in the atmospheric and soil temperature and it decreases during rainfall. The increasing temperature influences soil moisture adversely and an equilibrium is attained only after the first monsoon showers in the month of June which continued till August. Donahue et al. (1987) stated that no levelled land with a slope at right angle to the Sun would receive more heat per soil area and will warm faster than the flat surface. The soil layer impermeable to moisture have been cited as the reason for treelessness in part of the tropics, wherein its absence savanna develops (Beard, 1953). The resulting water logging of soil during the rainy season creates conditions not suitable for the growth of trees capable of surviving the dry season. The water holding capacity of the soil is determined by several factors. Most important among these are soil texture or size of particles, porosity and the amount of expansible organic matter and colloidal clay (Pandey, 1997). Water is held as thin film upon the surface of the particles and runs together forming drops in saturated soils, the amount necessarily increases with an increase in the water holding surface. Organic matter affects water contents directly by retaining water in large amount on the extensive surfaces of its colloidal constituents and also by holding it like a sponge in its less decayed portion. It also had an indirect effect through soil structure. Sand particles loosely cemented together by it, hence, percolation is decreased and water-holding capacity increased. Although fine textured soil can hold more water and thus more total water holding capacity but maximum available water is held in moderate textured soil. Porosity in soil consists of that portion of the soil volume not occupied by solids, either mineral or organic material. Under natural conditions, the pore spaces are occupied at all times by air and water. Pore spaces are irregular in shape in sand than the clay. The most rapid water and air movement is observed in sands than strongly aggregated soils. The pH of alpine sites ranged from 4.4 to 5.3 and it ranged from 4.8 to 6.1 in moraine sites of Dokriani Bamak. It indicated the acidic nature of the soil. The moraine sites were more acidic than the alpine sites. Acidity of soil is exhibited due to the presence of different acids. The organic matter and nitrogen contents inhibit the acidity of soil. The present observations pertaining to the soil pH (4.4 to 5.3 and 4.8 to 6.1) were more or less in the same range as reported for other meadows and moraine zones. Ram (1988) reported pH from 4.0-6.0 in Rudranath and Gaur (2002) on Chorabari. These pH ranges are lower than the oak and pine forests of lower altitudes of Himalayan region as observed by Singh and Singh, 1987 (pH:6.0-6.3). Furthermore, pH increased with depth. Bliss (1963) analyzed that in all types of soil, pH was low in upper layers (4.0-4.30) and it increased (4.6-4.9) in lower layer at New Hampshire due to reduction in organic matter. Das et al. (1988) reported the simil ar results in the sub alpine areas of Eastern Himalayas. All these reports support the present findings on Dokriani Bamak strongly. A potent acidic soil is intensively eroded and it has lower exchangeable cation, and possesses least microbial activity (Donahue et al., 1987). Misra et al., 1970 also observed higher acidity in the soil in the region where high precipitation results leaching. Koslowska (1934) demonstrated that when plants were grown under conditions of known pH, they make the culture medium either more acidic or alkaline and that this property differed according to the species. Soil properties may ch

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Down Syndrome Essay examples -- genetic disorder

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder in which a person is born with an extra copy of chromosome 21. There are three genetic variations that cause Down syndrome: Trisomy 21, Mosaic Trisomy 21 or Translocation Trisomy 21. There are many ways in which theses disorders affect the body.  Ã‚  Trisomy 21 occurs when an egg or sperm comes in with an extra copy of chromosome 21, then, once an embryo is formed and starts to develop, the chromosome is replicated in every single cell of the embryo. Trisomy 21 is the most common type of Down syndrome. About 92% of Down syndrome patients have this type. People with Trisomy usually have physical problems.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mosaic Trisomy 21 happens when an egg or sperm come in with an extra copy of chromosome 21, then, once an embryo is formed and starts to develop, the chromosome is replicated in some of the cells. In Mosaic some cells have a normal number of chromosomes and some have an extra chromosome 21. Mosaic Trisomy 21 occurs in 2-3% of patients with Down syndrome. Mosaic Trisomy produces a wide range of possibility of a person having physical problems.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Translocation Trisomy occurs when the extra copy of chromosome 21 or a piece of chromosome 21 becomes attached to another chromosome. Usually the chromosome 21 attaches to chromosome 14. About 3-4% of patients with Down syndrome have Translocation Trisomy 21.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Anyone can be born with Down syndrome because it is a random event. Down syndrome is not usually inherited, but can be inherited... Down Syndrome Essay examples -- genetic disorder Down syndrome is a genetic disorder in which a person is born with an extra copy of chromosome 21. There are three genetic variations that cause Down syndrome: Trisomy 21, Mosaic Trisomy 21 or Translocation Trisomy 21. There are many ways in which theses disorders affect the body.  Ã‚  Trisomy 21 occurs when an egg or sperm comes in with an extra copy of chromosome 21, then, once an embryo is formed and starts to develop, the chromosome is replicated in every single cell of the embryo. Trisomy 21 is the most common type of Down syndrome. About 92% of Down syndrome patients have this type. People with Trisomy usually have physical problems.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mosaic Trisomy 21 happens when an egg or sperm come in with an extra copy of chromosome 21, then, once an embryo is formed and starts to develop, the chromosome is replicated in some of the cells. In Mosaic some cells have a normal number of chromosomes and some have an extra chromosome 21. Mosaic Trisomy 21 occurs in 2-3% of patients with Down syndrome. Mosaic Trisomy produces a wide range of possibility of a person having physical problems.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Translocation Trisomy occurs when the extra copy of chromosome 21 or a piece of chromosome 21 becomes attached to another chromosome. Usually the chromosome 21 attaches to chromosome 14. About 3-4% of patients with Down syndrome have Translocation Trisomy 21.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Anyone can be born with Down syndrome because it is a random event. Down syndrome is not usually inherited, but can be inherited...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Difference Between Coe and Ece

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Some of the entering college students have the misconception that Computer Engineering and Electronics and Communication Engineering are only the same. But these are definitely different. This research will specify the differences between COE and ECE. It will give information in choosing their career and it will also use as a guide for incoming freshmen. Basically Electronics and Communication Engineering, deals in the study of communication and signals. It is a combination of electronics and communication. Communication like what we have nowadays; radio waves, spectrum, etc.It requires also a study in electronics, which deals with circuits. It deals more with hardware like integrated circuits. Logically it is also interlinked with computers. Computer Engineering is about the whole understanding of the concepts of computer. Such as operating system, programming, database, networks, software, hardware, etc. as this concept are esse ntial for who will take this course. Based on the definition of the two mentioned course, the differences between can be seen. It only means that they are not the same because they differ on field of study.In terms of job they can get, of course they also differ. As this research continues, it will cite more differences of ECE and COE. This research will help the incoming freshmen to their toughest decision in choosing in their career. Statement of the Problems/Objectives What is the distinction between the courses of Computer Engineering and the Electronics and Communication Engineering? †¢ Why is that most of the students considered that the Computer Engineering course is under the Electronics and Communications Engineering? †¢ Why is Computer Engineering course does not have its own board examination? What are the differences of their fields, duties and specialization? †¢ Is it true that COE came from the concept of ECE? Significance of the Study The researchers co nduct this research for the benefits of the: †¢ Incoming first year students of Computer Engineering in Bulacan State University to give them the vision of what COE is and how it is differ from ECE. †¢ The current second year students of the university to help them to choose between COE and ECE, and decide in third year either to stay in COE or shift to other courses of Engineering like ECE. Readers of this research to give them knowledge about the COE and ECE courses of College of Engineering in Bulacan State University. Scope and Delimitation The research is about the comparison of the courses of COE and ECE in terms of citing some of their differences and the details of each course and to prove that Computer Engineering is not under Electronics and Communication Engineering. The research also resolves the problem of COE being recognized as a major or course under ECE.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Grammar translation method Essay

Both the grammar translation method and communicative language teaching are teaching methods for acquiring a foreign language. Whereas the grammar translation method focuses on the translation of certain grammar rules and the translation of vocabulary, the communicative approach aims for acquiring the skill of communication for the learner Scrivener (2011). Both methods are effective in their own way, although the communicative approach focuses on the actual goal of language, namely communication between human beings. In this essay the grammar translation method and the communicative approach will be compared and contrasted, laying special emphasis on the assertion that the communicative approach is more effective for the learning and understanding of a foreign language than the grammar translation method. First of all, a remarkable difference in language usage is noticeable when comparing the two methods. While the grammar translation method exclusively uses the learner’s mother tongue, the communicative approach uses nothing else but the actual target language. With the use of the mother tongue, it is easier to understand grammar and meaning of words. (Rhalmi, M. (2009). This is a required skill to decipher written texts. When only using the foreign language, the level of oral communication increases. (Rhalmi, M. (2009). To find out which of both outcomes has a bigger value, it needs to be clear what the original goal of language is. Communicating is a required skill to survive. Oral communication is something that dates from the origin of the human kind. The invention of written language is a lot more recent. (Bright, W. (n.d). This proves that language is originally used for communication. Given this point, there can be concluded that the outcome of the communicative approach has bigger value to language’s actual goal.  In contrast, a really attractive feature on th e grammar translation method is its easily understandable explanation of grammar, words and phrases. Because of the fact that all the explanation happens in the mother tongue, it is easy for the learner to understand what is being said. Also, learners acquire a better capacity of understanding synonyms in the foreign language, due to the fact that they have already learned the meaning. Secondly, the communication between teacher and learner is flawless. Since the teacher and the learner speak the same language, the teacher can easily verify whether the pupils have learned what is just explained. (Fitriyanti, R. (2011).  Within the communicative approach, the communication between student and teacher is a lot more difficult and tedious in the beginning, which has to do with the use of target language only. However, the communication between teacher and learner is from much more value as the learner becomes more familiar with the foreign language (Abradi, C. (n.d). Because of goal aimed teaching in communicative language teaching, the communicative competence improves quickly (this will be explained later). What this says is that the tedious communication at the beginning can better be seen as a learning moment, rather than a disadvantage. Thirdly, in both methods there is a completely different way of acquiring skills. With the grammar translation method the students are supposed to learn the rules about the target language when sitting down and listening to their teacher. Grammar structures are explained and vocabulary is taught through word lists with a translation. The learner’s practice to apply what they’ve learned exists out of exercises where the learner needs to translate sentences or texts from the native to the target language and the other way around. (Rahlmi, M. (2009). Thus, this is a rather passive way of learning. The communicative language teaching lessons are quite different. These lessons contain meaningful activities in which the learner is required to interact. The activities are based on the interest of the learner to boost learning motivation. (Rhalmi, M. (2009). So, whereas the grammar translation method is rather passive, communicative language teaching is quite active. Passive learning is not really effective for the learner. (Ebbens, S (2013) states that a much better result of learning is caused by (inter)active practice. To go on, the teacher’s role is quite different in both methods. With the grammar translation method, the teacher is basically the guide for the learning process. The method is teacher centred, which means that the class focuses just on the explanation of the teacher. The role of the teacher here is to provide information to the students (Fitriyanti, R. (2011). â€Å"Teachers in communicative classrooms will find themselves talking less and listening more–becoming active facilitators of their students’ learning (Larsen-Freeman, 1986)† The communicative approach is a student centred method. Although the teacher sets up the exercise, it is the learner’s performance which fills up most of the lesson (Orellana. (2007). The  learning process is less effective when the teacher does most work in the classroom (teacher centred method) instead of the students doing most work in the classroom. (student centred method) (Ebbens, S (2013). A fifth issue, on which the two methods can be compared and contrasted on, is its historical background. The fact that learners of the grammar translation method are not able to produce comprehensive output in the form of oral communication, became evident in the years 1939 until 1945 (World War II) when the grammar translation method was not teaching students the foreign language effectively enough to communicate with allies or to understand the communications of the enemy, which was required to survive. When this occurred, a new approach appeared known as the audio lingual method which was based on structuralism and (The Grammar-Translation Method, n.d,). In 1957 the audio lingual method was criticised by the prominent linguist Noam Chomsky for its inability to teach learners to creatively apply language (Rhalmi, M. (2009). Partly because of this criticism, during the 60s of the 20th century, commutative language teaching was introduced in the classroom. (Rhalmi, M. (2009). This states that communicative language teaching was invented as a reaction on an alternative method for the grammar translation method. Thus, the communicative approach is actually already a more modern and adapted method of teaching the core goal language has. To summarise the main points mentioned in this essay; The difference of language usage in both methods, the advantage in language usage of both methods, the way of acquiring skills in both methods, the teacher and students role, and the historical background of both methods. These points given, I can conclude that the communicative approach of teaching a language is more effective to teach the learner language’s original goal, communication, than the grammar translation method. Although, if one is talking about comprehensive output in the form of letters and/or written text translations, the grammar translation method is superior to the communicative approach. Bibliography Rhalmi, M. (2009). Communicative Language Teaching (The Communicative Approach). Available: http://www.myenglishpages.com/blog/communicative-language-teaching-communicative-approach/. Last accessed 05/06/2014. Bright, W. (n.d). What’s the Difference between Speech and Writing?.Available: http://www.linguisticsociety.org//resource/whats-difference-between-speech-and-writing. Last accessed 05/06/2014. Rahlmi, M. (2009). Grammar Translation Method. Available: http://www.myenglishpages.com/blog/grammar-translation-method/. Last accessed 05/06/2014. Fitriyanti, R. (2011). Grammar Translation Method. Available: http://novaekasari09.wordpress.com/2011/06/12/grammar-translation-method/. Last accessed 05/06/2014. Abradi, C. (n.d). Advantages and disadvantages of communicative language teaching. Available: https://www.academia.edu/4743392/Communicative_Language_Teaching_theories_lesson_plan_and_application. Last accessed 05/06/2014. Orellana. (2007). The Communicative Approach in English as a Foreign Language Teaching Leer mà ¡s: http://www.monografias.c om/trabajos18/the-communicative-approach/the-communicative-approach.shtml#how#ixzz33uLe7fXe.Available: http://www.monografias.com/trabajos18/the-communicative-approach/the-communicative-approach.shtml#how. Last accessed 07/06/2014. The Grammar-Translation Method. (n.d). Available: http://hlr.byu.edu/methods/content/text/grammar-text.htm. Last accessed 02/06/2014. Scrivener (2011). Learning Teaching. 3rd ed. Londen: Macmillian. 31-32. Ebbens, S (2013). Effectief leren. Houten: Noordhoff uitgevers.

High School Credits and Graduation Requirements

Noemi Robles English 101 Arguing a Position Rough Draft High School Credits and Graduation Requirements â€Å"In 1997, Chicago raised its graduation standards to well above what Illinois then requires, asking all students to complete all of the courses necessary for entry to competitive state universities†(1). Many people believed that this may cause many students to drop out, but in reality, the graduation rates improved. Now, we are currently facing a nationwide dilemma. Many high schools are cutting graduation requirements and taking away classes that are important to both the students and teachers.I propose that every high school nationwide should have at least seven courses to take and that every student will graduate with a minimum of twenty-six credits. The most credits a student can obtain is twenty-eight which will be applied in the system. Some schools such as a high school in Santa Ana, California have their students graduate with at least two-hundred and forty cred its essay writer reviews. In 2009, the district wanted to reduce the credits to two-hundred and twenty so more students will graduate. â€Å"By lowering them its just like saying we don't want to put our students to their full potential†(2).Although two-hundred and forty seems like a lot, a course is worth a lot of credits as well which averages out neatly. It would be easier to have every school change the number to twenty-eight and twenty-six so there isn't any confusion. The state of Texas already has this standard and in the past, the graduation requirements have changed many times. Reducing graduation credits will not make things easier for students, but it will affect their performance when they are preparing for college.This issue should be addressed to everyone so every generation can prepare for their futures and be successful. Many schools want to lower their graduation requirements so more students will finish school and so others won't have the urge to dropout. An other reason why lowering these requirements could benefit us is because it will cost less money if some courses are taken out which means fewer teachers as well. â€Å"Twenty-five percent of all students, nearly forty-percent of Black and Hispanic kids fail to graduate†(3).This could also help schools raise their attendance and raise the graduation rates. Since many believe that lowering the graduation requirements is a good thing, they don't realize how much it could actually affect the students who are taking fewer courses. The reason we have schools is to prepare us for college and to prepare for adulthood. Schools benefit us mentally, physically, and emotionally. We learn to interact with others, we learn about ourselves, and we learn different materials to help us understand the way things work and why we do them.Lowering the amount of credits needed to graduate isn't going to make us smarter or help us prepare for our futures. There are many hardworking students who wa nt to learn and taking away a few courses can affect many especially if it was a course students wanted to take. One disadvantage of lowering the graduation requirements is not being prepared for college and it could be harder to be accepted into a good college or university. â€Å"According to a recent national survey, an overwhelming eighty-one percent of high school students expect to attend college†(4).Now a high school diploma isn't enough to find a good job and live on your own. A college graduate will have a better chance of obtaining that job which will make finding a job a lot more difficult, which is the second disadvantage. Students need those extra classes that are being taken away to prepare them for college. â€Å"Because too many students are not learning the basic skills needed to succeed in college or work while they are in high school, the nation loses more than $3. 7 billion a year†(4). A higher education can help lead to a rewarding career and a hap pier life.Students attending any high school should have many opportunities to succeed therefore we shouldn't even consider taking away any courses or lowering the amount of credits needed to graduation. Another reason why we shouldn't lower the credits, is because many classes that students want to take as an elective may not be in the curriculum therefore, they won't have the opportunity to learn something they were looking forward to. Although there should be a number of required courses students should take, electives help students feel more excited to attend school and that elective could be something that they want to study in the future.Some AP courses may also be taken away if they were to lower the graduation requirements. Lastly, lowering the requirements will cause students to slack off in school because they will find it easier to graduate especially incoming freshmen who don't fully understand the importance the first year of high school, and can influence colleges and universities to decline their admission. â€Å"Another high school in Scott County in Kentucky realized that they needed to make reforms after analyzing statistics that showed that forty-five percent of their incoming freshmen were likely to fail at least one ninth-grade class†(5).Students should be inspired to achieve and if we lower their credits they won't have the opportunity to go as far as they are willing to go. Most public high schools in California get their money to pay for teachers and programs through the state. The state pays for schools through revenue, funds, and grants. The money comes directly from 21. 8% state revenue, 38. 4% state general purpose revenue, 1. 6% state lottery revenue, 9. 2% federal, 21. 4% local property taxes and fees, and 7. 6% from other local revenue.The funds that are used are unrestricted funds which can be used for any purposes and earmarked funds which can be used for specific purposes. The grants that are given to schools consist of the base grant (funding for ordinary classroom operations), special education grant (additional flexibility in the use of special education funds), opportunity to learn grant (funding for compensatory instructional services for disadvantage students), instructional improvement grant (funding for staff development and instructional services such as arts and technology programs), and charities (6).Money shouldn't be a big issue because schools can receive money in many ways. â€Å"Morton High School District 201 officials have cut the number of credits students need to graduate and lengthened class periods in what the board president calls ‘the most effective and practical way to save the district money'†(7). Even though they are lengthening the school day, the graduation requirements have dropped which means students will be taking less classes then before.Since money seems to be the biggest issue, schools should encourage students to improve their attendance and get be tter grades because the school can receive more money from that. This obstacle can be solved with just a little hard work and dedication. â€Å"Most children who attend public and private schools in the U. S. Spend between 175 to 185 days in the classroom a year and enjoy a summer break between the months of June and September. The average length of the school day is six hours. U. S.Students spend approximately 30% less time in school than students in other industrialized nations, putting them at a disadvantage as they compete in the global arena†(8). This is extremely important because we as a nation constantly want to become the best but yet the next generation is having a hard time competing in ‘the global arena' because America isn't providing longer school days and more classes for our students. High school shouldn't be as long as six hours because many students work and others are in extra-curricular activities.Students need that gap in order to complete any assig nments and to get enough sleep for the next day. Summer vacation is also a benefit to students because students can relax, be with family, and do many other activities that they wouldn't be able to do if they were attending school. We believe that schools should not be lengthened but in order to prevent students from forgetting what they learned before school ends, they should complete some summer work, especially for math. AP courses give summer work to prepare students, but the work they receive will not be as much, so students won't become stressed.Students will still be able to enjoy their long break from school but have the opportunity to learn as well. If we lowered our graduation rates, there would be less high school dropouts, less classes being failed, more high school graduates, and school districts will be able to save more money if they cut classes that they thought weren't important. If the requirements were made easier for students, they may be inspired to try more cha llenging courses as well. Although there are several key points to the opposing argument, students can still be challenged by having more courses to choose from.If the requirements are higher to graduate, they will try harder to achieve and students who enjoy participating in sports will be motivated to achieve because they have to be passing a certain amount of classes to be eligible. Overall, keeping the credits to at least twenty-six can benefit students in many ways. We should support students to try their best and to achieve their goals. Bibliography 1. Will Raising High School Graduation Requirements Cause More Students To Drop Out?. 25 March 2013. ;http://www. achieve. org/files/ImproveGradRates. pdf;. 2.Barboza, Tony. â€Å"Santa Ana seeks to ease high school graduation requirement. † Los Angeles Times. 08 Feb. 2009:1-2. 27 March 2013. ;http://articles. latimes. com/2009/feb/08/local;. 3. Downey, Maureen. 26 March 2013. ;http://blogs. ajc. com/get-schooled-blog/2010/0 6/02;. 4. Paying Double: Inadequate High Schools and Community College Remediation. 27 March 2013. ;http://www. allyed. org/files/archive;. 5. McCallumore, Kyle M. , and Ervin F. Sparapani. â€Å"The importance of the ninth grade on high school graduation rates and student success in high school. Gale Student Resources in Context. Web. 29 March 2013. 6. How California Schools Get Their Money. 29 March 2013. ;http://www. cbp. org/pdfs;. 7. Ruzich, Joseph. â€Å"Morton High Schools Cut Graduation Requirements to Save Money. † Chicago Tribune. 10 June 2010. Web. 28 March 2013. ;http://articles. chicagotribune. com/2010-06- 10/news/ct-met-0611-morton-bells-20100610_1_president-jeffry-pesek-number-of-credits;. 8. ProQuest Staff. â€Å"At Issue: School Schedule. † ProQuest LLC. 2012: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 29 March 2013.