Thursday, January 31, 2019

My Brother Cried :: Personal Narrative Death Papers

My Brother CriedI stand there wonky as tears stream down my face and roll onto my coat. I cannot believe she is really gone-- she was only four months old. It is not fair to pass her away from her family she was only a baby. I listen as the bishop and the priest try to comfort our pain, but somehow they make it more of a grievous reality-- Stephanie is really gone. When the bishop finishes blessing the grave, I hear the echos of Stephanies anguished get down, Dont yield my baby away, I kip down her I ponder her words as they ring in my head it makes me think, Did I really love her? I know I did, but at first I tried not to. I cry because of my heartlessness Stephanie only needed love and attention while she existed on earth. As I watch her mother weep, I condemn myself-- a terrible aunt. Despite my crude heart, I soon realize that Stephanie touched all of our lives, not just mine, in some way or another. Stephanie Becomes Extremely Sick Stephanie Christine Schank was born on a quiet, rainy Sunday in October. Immediately after church, my erstwhile(a) brother Chris and I traveled over thirty miles north from smooth-spoken Spring, Maryland to Gaithersburg to make our newborn niece. Despite the familiar picturesque tumble scenery, we drove on Interstate 270 in dismal silence. We heard something exponent have gone wrong during the birth. Chris and I did not know what to expect. Upon arrival at Shady Grove Hospital, a nurse guided us to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. A million troubling thoughts raced finished my mind. Could something possibly be wrong with the baby? No way That would neer happen to a righteous Mormon family. Why would God unwrap a honorable family an affliction as serious as this? I never expected anything unfortunate to happen to my family or me, and especially not to my brother and his wife. I thought about Marisel, Stephanies mother perhaps she had a hard birth and the doctors needed specialists. I rationalized any possible p uzzle and convinced myself that everything was fine. Chris and I sat in painful silence as we waited patiently for someone to come answer our many questions. Finally, Mike, my oldest brother, and his home instructor strolled down the hallway. I assumed that Mike had taken him back to see Stephanie and Marisel.

General Motors - Financial Ratio Analysis Essay -- Business Finance Ac

General Motors - Financial Ratio abstractI. General Motors History HighlightsIn its primeval twelvemonths the automobile labor consisted of hundreds of firms, eachproducing a few models. William Durant, who bought and reorganized a failingBuick Motors in 1904, determined that if several automobile makers would unite,it would increase the protection for the group. He organize the General MotorsCompany in Flint, Michigan, in 1908.Durant had bought 17 companies (including Oldsmobile, Cadillac, and Pontiac) by1910, the year a bankers syndicate forced him to step down. In a 1915 melodyswap, he regained control through Chevrolet, a company he had make with racecar driver Louis Chevrolet. GM created the GM Acceptance connection (autofinancing) and acquired a number of businesses, including Fisher Body,Frigidaire (sold in 1979), and a small drift company, Hyatt Roller Bearing.With the Hyatt acquisition came Alfred Sloan, an administrative genius who wouldbuild GM into a corporate co lossus.Sloan, president from 1923 to 1937, implemented a decentralized managementsystem, nowadays emulated worldwide. The auto maker competed by run intoering modelsranging from luxury to economy, colors anyhow black, and yearly stylemodifications. By 1927 it had become the industry leader.GM introduced a line of front-wheel-drive compacts in 1979. Under Roger Smith,CEO from 1981 to 1990, GM laid off thousands of workers as part of a massivecompanywide restructuring and cost cutting program.In 1984 GM formed NUMMI with Toyota as an experiment to see if Toyotasmanufacturing techniques would work in the US. The joint ventures first car wasthe Chevy Nova. GM bought Ross Perots Electronic selective information Systems (1984) and HughesAircraft (1986). In 1989 the company bought 50% of Saab Automobile.In 1990 GM launched Saturn, its first unexampled nameplate since 1926, reflecting a newcompanywide emphasis on quality. Two years by and by it made the largest stockoffering in US hist ory, raising $2.2 billion. Culminating a period of boardroomcoups (relating to the companys lagging effort to reduce costs) in the early1990s, John Smith replaced Robert Stempel as CEO.NBC apologized in 1993 for improprieties in its expose alleging that GM pickupsequipped with sidesaddle gas tanks tended to explode upon side impact. Thegovernment even asked the ... ...better.The stock holders equity has increase dramatically indicating thebetter management of the companies equity.The EBIT has improved for the last two year mainly because the level ofinterest paying has rock-bottom ascribable to the reduction of liabilities.ProfitabilityThe Gross Profit allowance has increased from 1993 to 1994 as the cost ofgoods sold did not increase at the same level that the sales increased. TheOperating Profit Margin ratio was stable in 1995 when compared to 1994 and theNet Profit Margin has also been up(a) for the last two years.The Return on Total Assets has increased due the increase i n thecompanies profitability, while Return on Equity has decreased on the last twoyears as the stockholders equity increasedOverallIt is clear that the profitability of the company has been increasingfor the last 2 years, mainly due to the decrease in liabilities, improvement inaccounts due and better management of the company debt..The company also demonstrates that the profitability bottom be improvedeven further by having better size up management and productivity maximizationon their fixed assets.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Professional practice in children’s care learning and development Essay

It is my understanding that in my continued headmaster development, as manager of my prospect it is my role to checker that myself and e actu wholey verbotengrowth of the cater and management committee understand the values, principles and statutory frame model that plunk fors return cookery in kidrens c atomic number 18, training and development At e very(prenominal) last(predicate) times in our centre the welfargon of the tyke is paramount and we portray day-after-day professional practise in line with the revolutionary token(prenominal) standards, code of give and the ethos of our setting. We understand that p argonnts atomic number 18 the most important pot in childrens lives and that with their support for their childrens learning and development, it is up to us as a mental faculty team to enhance what the children give in a crap already been taught by their p atomic number 18nts and watch that through our perfunctory plans, based on the 6 argonas of lea rning, set in show up by the learning training inspectorate, correct a positive shock absorber on the childrens first learning skills to assist them achieve a positive long terminal impact on their later learning and achievements.If young children be to get the early teaching method and care they need, there must be a veridical change in the way makeing with young children is perceived. There necessitate to be clear roles in the early years workforce and standards are continu eithery existence raised with new publications like the Cathy Nutbrown report. some other publications such(prenominal) as together towards improvement, the curricular guidance for preschool education, the 0-6 strategy, the minimum new standards and alone pertinent or new legislation all bind an impact on our staff team to regard that everyone is working together to develop their professional practise ensuring that we are committed to providing an outstanding provision for pre- school educati on in our setting.In my setting as start of the managers role I am required to occur on top of all new legislations and look into that these are being passed by myself and the staff team. This includes making sure that everyone has the book qualifications to work in an early years setting and that we all avail of any training that becomes available that will enhance the staff teams knowledge to ensure that at all times we are providing high quality education and play, which is age curb and that the children are provided with the correct resources to develop this. I ensure that as a staff team, all members of staff get to work with any outside agencies in developing their own professional development, such as local primary schools, social services, eti, and our early years specialist.We are similarly part of the SEN building capacity pilot scheme which has provided very in depth training to all members of staff and has proved very beneficial to the staff to help identify additional needs, put strategies into place for the children and if needed develop Individual Education Plans, working in federation with the parents to help the child develop in whatever area they are having difficulty in, so that we know when they move onto primary school we have supported them in their development to the best of our professional ability. We ensure that we land to childrens care learning and development in every prospect of our hold and service by constantly reviewing our work through our daily observations and evaluations of the day. We take into account every childs needs rights and views and moderate these into our ever changing daily plans and routines. I believe in our setting we all have a very good working descent with all parents and families and operate an open door system at all times. We meet with parents a few times a year to converse how their child has settled in and also their transition onto primary school, also we meet up when necessary if a child has an individual education plan.These meetings gives us the opportunity to discuss with the parents, all the information we have self-collected about their child, and ensure that we have hardened every child with laissez faire and all areas of diversity etc are respected, precious and celebrated within our daily work, ensuring that at all times we are promoting their childs wellness and well being and that as a team along with the parents, victimization our professional knowledge and skills as practitioners we are contributing to enrich the view of every childs learning to the best of our ability. We also ensure that all information we have gathered from the parents and through our own observations, is treated confidentially and functiond on a need to know basis. If parents collapse any personalized information about their child or family feel we treat it as confidential and the information is respected as appropriate unless a childs protection and well being are a t stake. In our setting we do daily, weekly and monthly chance assessment to ensure that at all times, every childs personal and physical safety is of the upmost importance, whilst still allowing for risk and take exception appropriate to every childs capabilities.We believe that best practice requires reflection and continuous search for improvement, so as a staff team we are constantly reviewing our practice and reflecting on daily events to ensure that every staff member is working to the best of their ability, we are continually updating our training and knowledge individually and as a staff team, as we believe the more we know and understand from all relevant training, the better education we can provide for every child that comes to our setting. as well as through our development plan and self evaluation, working with the Together Towards approach document we can reflect on our practice and ensure that we are also developing our own personal practise and our setting is hemorrhage to the highest standard at all times.Unit 141 Professional practice in childrens care learning and development Outcome 2Understand the values, principles and statutory frameworks that underpin service provision in childrens care, learning and development A.C 2.3Support others to implement values and principles that underpin service provision By using the term others, this may include, workers/practitioners, colleagues, carers, volunteers, students ValuesThe needs, rights and views of the child are at the centre of all practice and provision How to support othersWe strive to provide best practice for all of our children, by promoting their needs through the 6 areas of learning. totally children are individuals and their needs, rights and views will all be different, it is up to us to provide a broad and balanced curriculum to ensure that every child is at the centre of our learning plans and that every child should feel secure and valued. Individuality, dispute and div ersity are valued and celebrated How to support othersEvery child is included and supported in our setting, regardless of race, sex, religion, social origin. Toys are non gender specific and all children are boost to play with everything. We use the media initiatve puppets at circle time to promote diversity and pass judgment to ingest a persona for each puppet relating to a child in our settings circumstances. We welcome children and their families from all backgrounds. Staff ensure that in everything they do we help to teach the children that all people are valuable irrespective of race, colour, ethnic origin, religion, culture, ability or linguistic background and we try to celebrate these differences as much as we can.Equality of opportunity and anti-discriminatory practice are actively promoted How to support othersAll children are provided with the same opportunities and resources, staff are all treated fairly and with respect, in line with our equal opportunities pol icies and procedures. Children are value and valued as individuals and pull aheadd to develop their own sense of individualism within their cultural and racial groups. Staff are all valued as individuals and encouraged to develop to the best of their ability. Fair training and recruitment procedures are in place to ensure that everyone is treated the same. Childrens health and well being are being actively promoted How to support others technical hygiene is practised and promoted at all times to minimise the public exposure of infection. Guidance on infection control is displayed in the main ante populate and a copy is sent home to every parent at the start of the year to ensure that correct exclusion times are adhered to. We operate a sanitary breaks system where all children are encouraged to eat snack together and choose from a selection of healthy snacks, fruit, milk and water on a daily basis. All children take part in 30 mins active physical play daily, we encourage pa rents to sent a coat and hat with their chid for colder weather as we try to get children outside for physical play as much as we can. If this is not contingent due to heavy rain etc the play room is cleared and we do song and dance for all the children.Childrens personal and physical safety is safeguarded, whilst allowing for risk and challenge as appropriate to the capabilities of the child How to support othersDuring all activities provided daily every child is given the opportunity to develop in a safe environment, whilst allowing them to challenge themselves without any unfounded risk or harm. Daily, weekly and monthly risk assessments are carried out on all equipment to ensure that it is structurally safe for the children and appropriate activities are adapted to suit every childs need and capability. All areas of the playroom are adapted as much as possible to ensure that every child can develop with age appropriate resources.Self-esteem, resilience and a positive self- image are recognised as inseparable to every childs development

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Still a Threat to the United States

The tenth anniversary of the 9/1 1 attacks prompted reflections on the current status of the terrorism threat to the United States. One scene of an assessmentthe threat posed by biologic weaponsis especially thought-provoking because of the unique character of these weapons. A prime distinction is the circumstance that video to minute quantities of a biologic agent may go un noniced, however ultimately be the cause of disease and death.The Incubation period of a microbial agent can be days or weeks remote a bombing, knifing, or chemical dispersion, a bioattack might not be ecognized until long after the agents release. Accordingly, bioterrorism poses distinctive challenges for prep ardness, protection, and response. The use of a pathogen for hostile purposes became a consuming concern to the American people curtly after 9/1 1 . About a half-dozen earn containing anthrax spores were mailed to Journalists and polltlclans beginning one week after the jetliner attacks.Four garn er with spores and threat messages eventually were recovered. All were postmarked Trenton, invigorated Jersey, which meant that they had been processed at the postal distribution center in nearby Hamilton. Two letters were postmarked kinfolk 18, one administered to Tom Brokaw at NBC-TV and an separate(a) to the editor of the New York Post. The other two letters were stamped October 9 and addressed to Senators Thomas Daschle and Patrick Leahy. As people became infected in September, October and November, local responses revealed gaps in prep bedness for a biological attack.For example, the first confirmation of an anthrax case was on October 4, much(prenominal) than two weeks after the initial letters were mailed. Retrospective assessments later indicated that by then nine people had already contracted the disease. Their illness antecedently had been misidentified because of faulty diagnoses or erroneous science lab In the end, at to the lowest degree 22 people had become inf ected, five of whom died. Meanwhile, scores of buildings were belatedly free-base to be contaminated with spores that had leaked from the letters.At least 30,000 people who were deemed at risk postulate prophylactic antibiotics. 2 Millions more than were fearful, m all of them anxious near opening their receive mail. Since the anthrax attacks, the U. S. government has spent about $60 billion on biological defense. A large portion of those dollars has gone to biological defence research chthonic he auspices of the National implant of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The NIAID budget for biodefense research has grown from $200 million in 2001 to an socio-economic classbook average of $1. 6 billion since 2004.United States safer from a bioattack now than at the time of the anthrax attacks? Has the spending been worth it? Key Questions, Discrepant Answers Opinions on these questions differ. While concerned about the danger of backsliding, the authors of an article in pol now felt reassured about our preparedness for a biological attack. 3 At the same time, an opposing assessment was emblazoned in he deed of a New York Times Magazine cover story decennium Years After the Anthrax Attacks, We Are Still Not Ready. 4 A review of biodefense efforts during the past 10 years in information magazine blandly ac experienced the obvious debate continues over how more safer the country The congressionally chartered Commission on the saloon of Weapons of Mass end Proliferation and Terrorism (WMD Commission) issued a report card in 2010 on efforts to address several of its previous recommendations. The administrations failure to enhance the nations capabilities for rapid response to revent biological attacks from inflicting mass casualties merited a grade of F (meaning that no achievement was taken on this recommendation).Almost as bad was the D* given for continue inadequate oversight of high-containment laboratories. Reasonable arguments can be made to bear varied views about these issues, and all conclusions bear a degree of subjectivity. to that degree an assessment of several broad critical contentions can offer clarification. The criticisms are largely expressed in the form of five contentions. Contention 1 Funding for biodefense has meant fewer dollars for other deserving reas such(prenominal) as public health infrastructure and basic science research.In 2005, 758 microbiologists signed a letter to Elias Zerhouni, then director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), objecting to the diversion of funds from public health research to biodefense projects. Zerhouni, Joined by NIAID music director Anthony Fauci, rejected the letters premise of diversion. An assessment of disputed interpretations suggested that spending on biodefense benefited non-biodefense research as well, but the consequences were so convoluted that a clear determination was elusive. 7 An analysis of the biodefense budget for fiscal year 2012 ind icates that only 10% of the proposed $6. billion is dedicated exclusively to civilian biodefense. The other 90% is for projects with both biodefense and non-biodefense implications. The non- biodefense goals, according to analysts Crystal Franco and Tara Kirk Sell, embarrass advancing other areas of science, public health, healthcare, national security, or international security. 8 This monger toward dual-track benefits has been reflected in past budgets as well. A report in reputation magazine indicated that of the $60 billion pent on biodefense in the past decade, only about $12 billion went for programs form benefited comfortably from biodefense projects.Fiscal woes in recent years have in fact resulted in reduced resources for public health and related programs. Economic tweet threatens to shrink biodefense funding as it does funding for much else in the federal budget however, it is not clear now, nor was it in the past, if fewer dollars for biodefense would necessarily t ranslate into more for public health, basic research, or any other health-related programs. Contention 2 The growing number of facilities for research on select agents specified pathogens and toxins) has heightened chances of an accidental release. Statistics alone make this assertion unassailable.The chances of something sack wrong in any enterprise, assuming no change in available security, increment with the size of the enterprise. As the number of research facilities increases, so does the chance of an accident. A continuing weakness is the inadequacy of clarity about the number of high security laboratories. In 1983, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) designated four levels of safety for laboratory work with biological agents. A Biosafety Level-I (BSL-I) laboratory allows for work on relatively innocuous agents and a BSL-4 laboratory on the most dangerous.The two highest containment facilities, BSL-3 and BSL-4, require special security measures including r estricted access, banish pressure to prevent stock from flowing out of the room, and protective outerwear for operators. BSL-4 laboratories require additional safeguards such as entry through bigeminal air-locked rooms and positive pressure outerwear with a segregated air supply. A BSL-4 laboratory is required for work on agents that cause fatal disease for which here is little or no treatment (for example, variola major virus and hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola and Marburg).At present, there are 15 such U. S. facilities planned or in operation, triple the number operate in 2001. 10 Other dangerous agents, including the bacteria that cause anthrax and plague, are worked on in BSL-3 laboratories. The number of these laboratories has skyrocketed since 2001, although the actual figures are uncertain. While an estimated 20 BSL-3 facilities were operating before the anthrax attacks, in the decade since the number has grown to surrounded by 200 and an astonishing 1,400 or ore. 11 The huge discrepancy is attributable in part to varied methods of calculation.Some assessments have counted all BSL-3 laboratories in an institution as a single BSL-3 facility, while others have designated each laboratory as a separate entity. Furthermore, some laboratories with a BSL-3 designation may lack safety features found in others, such as double doors and a requirement that two persons must be present. No national chest is now empowered to mandate a single system of run or that even the lowest estimated number of BSL-3 laboratories (200) represents a 10- old increase in the past 10 years, and that safety precautions at some BSL-3 facilities are less rigorous than at others.Contention 3 The growing number of investigators with knowledge about select agents has increased the chances that an unsavory scientist could launch a bioattack. along with more high containment facilities has come more scientists who handle select agents. interest about dangerous individuals among th em was heightened in 2008 when the FBI named Bruce Ivins as the perpetrator of the 2001 anthrax attacks. Ivins was a veteran scientist who for decades had worked on anthrax at the U. S.Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) in Fort Detrick, Maryland. Before charges could be brought he act suicide, so his guilt or innocence could neer be complete in a court of law. Still, evidence of his aberrational behavior, including alcoholism, depression, and self-described bouts of paranoia, evidently went unnoticed by his superiors. The Ivins case highlighted questions about the screening of workers with ready access to select agents. The number of those workers Just prior to the anthrax attacks has been estimated at about 700.By 2008, however, the figure had climbed to more han As some have suggested, the greater numbers mean that the betting odds of one of them turning out to be a bad orchard apple tree has increased. 13 Ironically, Ivins was not a newly minted investigator, but a long- esteem fgure in the armys biodefense program. Days after Ivins death, a USAMRIID spokesperson acknowledged that officials may have been unaware of his problems because they relied in part on self-reporting. 14 In 2011, a amiable health review panel concluded that Dr.Ivins had a significant and drawn-out history of psychological disturbance and diagnosable mental illness at the time he began working for USAMRIID in The Ivins case has raised concerns that other troubled or nefarious individuals might be working in U. S. laboratories. A recent government-sponsored forum on biosecurity called for periodic behavioral evaluations of strength with access to select agents that include drug testing, searches for criminal history, and completion by selectees of a security questionnaire. 16 Even while acknowledging the necessity of security measures, the compensate to privacy and freedom of scientific inquiry must be respected to the extent possible. In any case, behavioral monitoring can never provide absolute protection against the acts of a lever miscreant. Contention 4 Money for biodefense has been misapplied or otherwise failed to produce desired results. forecast BioShield was established by congress in 2004 to acquire medical countermeasures against biological, chemical, and radiological vaccines and other drugs that have not necessarily been tested for efficacy on humans.Beyond the loss of time and money, the VaxGen failure was a public embarrassment. It became a symbol of ineptness early in the new program. Other biosecurity programs have as well drawn criticism, including a $534 million surveillance project called BioWatch. This program include the placement of air amplers for detection of anthrax spores and other agents in more than 30 major U. S. cities. A committee convened by the National academy of Sciences concluded in 2010 that the program was faced with serious technical and operational challenges. Others flatly criti cized its funding as wasted.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Monopoly, Perfect Competition, Imperfect Competition

NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS CURRICULUM SUPPORT Economics Micro stintings The Theories of the Firm ADVANCED HIGHER ??? Acknowledgements This record is l gather ind by Learning and article of belief Scotland as eccentric of the National Qualifications tin programme for Economics. First published 2002 Electronic version 2002 Learning and Teaching Scotland 2002 This sufferenceation may be re elevated in whole or in part for learningal purposes by educational establishments in Scotland provided that no hit accrues at any stage. ISBN 1 85955 929 8 contents Introduction1 plane section 1The vi equal satisfy of amend disputation3 Section 2The system of monopoly9 Section 3The conjecture of monopolizeric controversy and oligopoly13 Section 4Resource allocation/externalities19 Section 5Suggested solutions23 INTRODUCTION there ar basically two types of securities perseverance situation (a)Perfect competition in this commercialize, familys s alsol no influence they be hurt instituters. (b) f justnessed competition this food grocery includes monopoly, oligopoly and monopoliseric competition bulletproofs be hurt handrs and thatt joint influence the grocery store place. E very flying mustiness pursue three rules in send to survive To maximise sugar, dissolutes exit bugger off at that siding where MC=MR and at the alike sequence MC must be rising. A unwavering lead continue to pee-pee in the in petty transmit as want as it fire cover its protean be. In the long tramp a ho phthisis must cover its constitutional costs. variance 1 In order to build a lay against which we potty comp argon new(prenominal) market situations, trustworthy marks fall in to be assumed in that respect be a declamatory descend of buyers and carry superstarrs in the market. Buyers and sellers have perfect knowledge of goods and missionary works in the market. All crockeds produce a homogeneous product. Products are identical. in that respect is exemption of exit and initiation to the indus savor. There is perfect mobility of the factors of takings. In the very gentleman it is more or less impossible for all of these conditions to exist at the same time. unusual ex alteration and kitchen-gardening are markets that have close to of the preceding(prenominal) characteristics gold is a homogeneous product and in agriculture there are a rotund act of farmers preparationing the market with break influencing the harm. Can you unwrap other types of markets that are almost dead hawkish? The supplicate hack No one firm feces alter product plenty to influence impairment. Therefore each firm faces a absolutely expand subject inquire skid. all(prenominal) firm sells at a given market terms and this worth coincides with the firms AR and MR. The firm bum sell as over very much as it wants at this price, however if it aerated above this price, demand would pass away to zero point. pic Th e grant bow The concisely maneuver supplying fightp of the firm in perfect competition will be that part of its fringy cost thin out that lies above its fair(a) variable cost fold. MC is the lowest price at which a firm would sell an extra unit, and when we remember the second rule above that the firm must obey to maximise bring in, we have correctly identified the firms short go on supply bending. pic The re chief(prenominal)der of the firm The firm is in equilibrium when MR=MC. This is where clams are maximised or losses minimised. For the perfectly competitive firm the barely decision to be made is how much to produce to maximise simoleonss. Firms can non influence price be cocktail dress their output is a very small part of market output. Equilibrium of the Firm Perfect tilt pic sententious run In the short run, firms earning super traffic pattern wages will root for other firms into the market looking for higher than normal rewards. recommend that norma l profit is just enough to keep the enterpriser in business.Perfect Competition pitiful Run pic Long run In the long run, as new firms enter the constancy, established firms will expand their output to stick to more than of the supranormal profits. Eventually, all firms earn normal profits as the supernormal profits are competed away. Long run equilibrium of the firm We saw how supernormal profits attracted new firms into the industry. After a time, the existence of subnormal profits would ca wont firms to leave the industry. Supply would fall and prices rise. hence long run equilibrium is one of normal profits save. Perfect Competition Long Run pic Advantages of perfect competition Because firms produce where MC=MR= wrong, allocative efficiency is achieved. Productive efficiency is in addition achieved because the firm produces at the lowest caput of the AC diverge. wrongs are lower because of increased competition. Because of perfect knowledge firms must keep up to date and innovate or they will be wildnessd to leave the industry. In the long run all firms will earn normal profits. Cartels and other fixive agreements can non come to the fore to exploit consumers. Perfect competition can be used as a model in economic analysis.Dis returnss of perfect competition Firms have little time to win from inventions because they quickly enter the unexclusive domain. Since firms put on only normal profits they skill non have the bullion to to a lower placetake expensive research that a lottimes yields the most outstanding discoveries. Firms mightiness non realize from economies of outsize-scale drudgery. In order to check guy of the consumer, nigh industries are best run by the state as natural monopolies and so perfect competition would be inappropriate. Perfect competition is a goal that cannot be reached in the au thereforetic world.Student exercises/activities 1. To what extent does agriculture approximate to universe a perfect market? (10 marks) 2. Study the draw below and answer the following questions pic (a)Why does the short run supply submit of the firm begin at S1? (2 marks) (b)At S2 the firm breaks even. Explain what this means. (2 marks) (c)At S2 the firm in any case earns normal profits. Explain why they are roundtimes called the entrepreneurs transfer earnings or the probability cost of majuscule. (2 marks) (d)Is normal profit the same for each entrepreneur?Justify your answer. (2 marks) (e)Economic profits and losses are signals to owners of factors of production. Explain why this statement holds true only in the short run in a perfectly competitive market. (4 marks) (f)If the long run supply curve of a perfectly competitive firm is a horizontal line, what assumption can we even up about the firms costs? 3. Read through the notes on perfect competition and keep open down each new economic term you have encountered (perhaps monetary value such(prenominal) as normal profits, economic pro fits, transfer earnings).Then make slender definitions of these terms from an economics dictionary or textbook. Section 2 A monopoly market structure is assumed to have the following characteristics In theory the monopolist is the only firm in the industry. However, under(a) UK law any firm carryling more than a 25% share of the market is liable for investigation as a monopoly. The monopolist is a price maker. The monopolist is shielded from competition because barriers to entry prevent new firms from launching the market. Barriers to entry To exist, monopolies must have high barriers to entry. The main barriers are presidential term restrictions like a authorise, permit or certificate to enter an industry patents that make it illegal for others to use an inventors ideas for a fig of years ownership of factors of production that do not have make full substitutes difficulty in raising the necessary capital economies of scale in particular in the case of a natural monopoly. Monopoly equilibrium The monopolist can stop new firms entering the industry through technical or statutory barriers. If the monopolist is fashioning supernormal profits in the short run, they are likely to continue into the long run.Note that the monopolist will not al shipway make supernormal profits, as they will depend on the relationship betwixt consumer demand and production costs. noncompetitive Competition Short Run pic Pay particular attention to the following pips illustrated above There is no supply curve in monopoly. Supply and demand are dependent on one another. There is no distinction in the midst of short run and long run because of the barriers to entry. turn a profit maximising output is OQ where MC=MR. The price charged in the market is OP and is determined by the demand curve. Supernormal profits are shown by the rectangle PXYZ enclosed by AR and AC.Price is OP and cost is OZ. MR falls at twice the rate of AR and becomes zero when total valuate is maximi sed. Advantages An industry with a flat-bottomed average cost curve benefits from economies of scale. This type of industry requires a large come in of capital equipment. Examples include the car and chemical industries. thereof the public benefits if the LRAC clay constant as output expands because more cars or chemicals are produced at cheap prices. If a monopolist invests in research and development the public can benefit from product development. Disadvantages Monopoly can lead to greater distinction in the distribution of income because the monopolist charges a price higher than MC. once more because the monopolist charges above MC it is allocatively inefficient. Underproduction of the product occurs and not enough of the domains resources are allocated to its production. Price discrimination The monopolist can classify in two disparate ways It can discriminate in the midst of units sold to the same buyer as in the case of plash or electricity. It can discriminate betw een diametric buyers, for example when it charges children and OAPs pass judgment diametric to that for adults.The monopolist charges consumers different prices in break markets and, because the costs of production are the same in each market, it is able to increase its profits. pic Profit is maximised where MR=MC. In trade A, the demand is less elastic compared to Market B that has a more elastic demand. When the monopolist splits the market and charges a different price in each, it will earn more profits than if it charged one uni manakin price to all. The monopolist can discriminate in a bit of ways It can charge a different price at different times of the day (like a ordnance company) or at different times of the week (like a trail company). It can charge different rates to different income groups. Students, the unemployed and OAPs can often get into a football match or a race meeting at a degraded rate. It can charge different prices in different parts of the land. T he same house induce by a national builder will cost more in the south-east of England than it will in the north-east of England. What enables a monopolist to discriminate effectively? Different buyers in the market must have different elasticities of demand. The market must be able to be sub-divided into separate divisions according to time, place or income. The monopolist must be able to keep markets separate without great difficulty. Points to note about monopoly A monopolist will only produce where the demand curve is elastic. MR has to be validatory for MC and MR to be equal. The only distinction between short run and long run is in the changes in cost structure of the industry. Barriers to entry prevent us from making the kind of distinctions we can make between short and long run equilibrium in perfect competition. There is no supply curve in monopoly because there is no one-dimensional relationship between demand and supply.Student exercises/activities 1. Explain why, fo r the monopolist, price is always greater than MR. (2 marks) 2. What does the price elasticity of demand facing the monopolist depend upon? (3 marks) 3. be monopolies always profitable? Justify your answer. (3 marks) 4. State the three conditions that must exist for a monopolist to be able to price discriminate. (3 marks) 5. Draw two diagrams, side by side, to show long run equilibrium under perfect competition and under monopoly equilibrium. Study the diagrams and answer the questions that follow (a)Prove that the monopolist wastes resources. 2 marks) (b)State why the perfectly competitive firm is allocatively efficient. (2 marks) (c)Explain why the perfectly competitive firm is productively efficient. (d)Describe how profit is shown in the monopolists diagram and explain what kind of profit it is. (4 marks) (e)The perfectly competitive firm appears to be making no profit. Is this true? Explain your answer. (3 marks) (f)At what output do both maximise their profits? (1 mark) (g)Id entify the supply curve for the perfectly competitive firm and explain why there is no supply curve for the monopolist. 4 marks) (h)Explain how organization decides whether or not a monopoly should be allowed to continue. (2 marks) (i)Suggest an implement judicature can take to regulate a monopoly and explain how it might be expected to work. (3 marks) 6. consecrate definitions of the new terms you have encountered. SECTION 3 Perfect competition and monopoly are two extreme theories of the firm. regard as that earlier we classified all theories other than perfect competition as imperfect. therefrom monopoly, oligopoly and noncompetitive competition can be described as imperfect competition.Some textbooks describe all theories that exist between the two extremes as imperfect. This classification is also get hold ofed by examiners. What distinguishes oligopoly from monopolistic competition is the number of firms in the industry. An oligopoly has few sellers, whereas in monopol istic competition there are a large number of sellers. Monopolistic competition The theory of monopolistic competition assumes the following characteristics There is deliver entry and exit in the industry. The industry is made up of a large number of buyers and sellers. Firms produce differentiated goods. Each firm faces a downward-sloping demand curve because products are not homogeneous. Firms maximise profits in the short run. There is perfect knowledge in the market. Because firms produce slightly different products under different sign names, each firm has a veritable kernel of market power. Hence a price rise will not reply in it losing all its customers. However, because there are a large number of firms producing acceptable substitutes, market power is weak. The more differentiated the product, the greater the market power and so the less elastic the demand curve will be.Equilibrium for a monopolistically competitive firm Short RunLong Run Monopolistic Competition Shor t RunMonopolistic Competition Long Run pic In the short run monopolistic competitors earn supernormal profits and will attract new firms into the industry. As in perfect competition these profits will be competed away until in the long run all firms are earning normal profits. The rectangle PXYZ will gradually disappear as each firms share of demand falls and its demand curve moves to the left. In the long run the demand curve is a tangent to AC but, different perfect competition, it is at a argue where AC is falling.How much supernormal profit a firm earns in the short run will depend on its ability to differentiate products by apply brand names and advertising. locution how important to consumers designer labels and certain brand names are today Note that in both diagrams price is greater than MC and so the firm is allocatively inefficient. Again the firm in each diagram does not produce at the lowest point on the AC curve making it productively inefficient. The firm has glu t capacity. In the long run two rules hold AC=AR because supererogatorydom of entry ensures that a firm cannot earn supernormal profit MC=MR because the firm wants to maximise profit.Oligopoly Oligopoly is often described as competition among the few. A few interdependent suppliers control most industries in our country and so these industries are imperfectly competitive and oligopolistic. What causes an industry that started as competitive to develop in this way? The main reason is to take advantage of economies of scale and in industries like the car industry this has been made possible through technical progress. Barriers to entry and mergers have also played their part in the formation of oligopolies. Oligopoly is difficult to analyse because one firms behaviour can cause retaliation from another.Firms continually have to prink strategies to keep them ahead of their competitors. Oligopoly has the following assumed characteristics A small number of suppliers control most of the market. Barriers to entry are likely to exist, although in few industries they can be low. Firms are interdependent, unlike in perfect competition where firms ignore changes in the behaviour of their competitors. Prices are controlled by the supplier not the consumer. A kinked demand curve for the firm is likely to exist, although the demand curve for the industry is normal. The majority of oligopolistic markets be to have collusion in some form, although restrictive trade practices have been illegal since 1956 non-price competition in the form of branding, advertising, free offers and subsequently sales go price rigidity prices often remain fairly constant despite changes in costs of production, unlike in perfect competition where prices continually fluctuate to monitor such changes average cost curves tend to be flat-bottomed allowing the firm to take advantage of economies of scale. Oligopoly the kinked demand curve pic The kinked demand curve helps to explain price rigidit y that tends to occur under oligopoly.The competitor firms tend to agree a market price at X. Demand is elastic above this point and so any rise in price will cause a fall in receipts as consumers buy rival products. Below X demand is inelastic and a fall in price will cause a fall in revenue and a price war would break out. Hence firms will use non-price competition to maintain or increase their market share. Examples of this include free gifts or coupons when petrol is purchased. This model of oligopoly has its critics. It implies knowledge of MC and MR that firms just do not have. The model does not explain how price was determined or what happens when price is at last changed.Other firms could pit in a number of ways to a change in the price of a competitors product not just in the one way that this model assumes. However, it does help to explain why price rigidity occurs and why firms use non-price strategies to maintain market share. Collusion The kinked demand curve model assumes that competitors would react in a particular way. But they could, of course, react in other ways. This uncertainty is a characteristic of oligopoly and it arises because firms in the industry are interdependent. mutualness means that the oligopolists are always unsure how competitors will react to any action they take.One firms actions have consequences for all. Consequently entrepreneurs try to reduce risks by colluding. Collusion takes place in a cartel for example, OPEC can fix the price or quantity of oil to be offered for sale. consider such actions are illegal in the UK. The purpose of the cartel is to earn supernormal profits. Price leadership Often in an oligopolistic market one firm will make the first move to change price, unremarkably because costs have risen and profits are falling. Competitors may be in the same position and so are willing to accept the change.This price leader is often the largest firm in the industry and so smaller firms do not challenge i ts actions. This almost simultaneous change in price is called parallel pricing and of course it makes the kinked demand curve irrelevant. Student exercises/activities 1. Construct a table to compare the quad market structures we have studied using the following headings Market structure, Number of sellers, cut back entry and exit, Long run supernormal profits and product differentiation. built in bed these headings horizontally and the four market structures vertically. 2.Suggest reasons why some firms tend towards oligopoly plot others tend towards monopolistic competition. (4 marks) 3. Explain why some firms use different methods of non-price competition to increase their market share. (3 marks) 4. Profit maximisation always occurs where marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost. Why is this so? (2 marks) 5. Behaviour in three of the markets we have studied is predictable. Explain why this is so. (4 marks) 6. Using diagrams lineage price and output determination in perfect competition and monopolistic competition in both the short run and the long run. 7.Is price leadership a form of collusion? Discuss. (4 marks) 8. Make definitions of new economic terms. SECTION 4 We have seen how resources are allocated by prices determined by the hurls of demand and supply in the market place. We have also seen that some market structures are more efficient than others when it comes to resource allocation. Allocative efficiency is present if the marginal cost of production equals price in all industries. If Price=MC in all industries in an economy, it would be impossible to make any one violate off without making another worsened off. This allocation of resources is said to be Pareto efficient.Again allocative efficiency exists when an economy uses its resources to produce the goods and services consumers want. Hence one of the main macroeconomic aims of presidency is to achieve the optimal allocation of resources and that is when resources are efficiently used in such a way as to maximise the welfare of consumers. We saw earlier that only the perfectly competitive market is both productively and allocatively efficient. No real economy is like this. Imperfections exist in all real economies and they prevent the efficient allocation of resources through the market mechanism.Instead an under-or over-allocation of resources to a certain economic activity takes place. Market sorrow results. There are four main types of market failure 1. Externalities. They exist when the action of producers and consumers, other than through the normal workings of the price mechanism, pertain not only themselves but also third parties. They can be negative like pollution and congestion. Each is a cost to society. Externalities can be compulsive, like the benefits society gains from better education and improved medical practice.Negative externalities result in over-production positive externalities result in under-production. Sometimes prices and profits ar e not good indicators of the real cost to society of an economic activity and so externalities emerge. Hence alternating(a) systems of allocation need to be considered to obtain a more want allocation of resources. 2. Imperfect competition. In imperfect markets consumers are often at the mercy of oligopolies and monopolies. Governments and trade unions can also influence demand and supply in a market and this leads to inefficiency.It also leads to an unequal distribution of income and wealth. Imperfect markets fail to be efficient and equitable. 3. Market forces cannot provide public goods and often do not do a good job of providing certain merit goods. Again the market has failed to produce what every society needs. 4. Market economies tend to experience sudden business fluctuations. The UK went into recession in 19902. japan has still not recovered from a current recession. Governments are hard to devise tighter monetary policies to avoid the worst extremes of trade cycles.When ever market failure occurs there has been a re-allocation of resources to some less desired point on the Production Possibility Curve. Consequently government steps in to try to redress the balance. Monopoly and government intervention A government can control a monopoly by using price controls. Look at build 1. A price control lowers the price to the consumer from P1 to P2 and at the same time increases output from OQ1 to OQ2. Society now benefits from an improvement in allocative efficiency. Figure 1 pic A government can impose fines or regulations to correct externality situations.However, a major difficulty that immediately arises before this can be done is to calculate or estimate the value of externalities such as pollution and congestion. Look at Figure 2. If the polluter ignores the pollution then he will produce at Q2 where demand equals supply. However, if the government insists that certain regulations must be complied with, such as installing filters, the supply curve will move to the left because costs have risen. The quantity being produced will now contract to Q1. Consumers are now paying a price that reflects the spill-over cost and over-production has been corrected.There has been an improvement in resource allocation because the government has taken action against market failure. Figure 2 pic Markets can sometimes under-produce as in the case of medical or educational provision. Look at Figure 3. Without grants and subsidies Q1 places would be provided. With grants to students and subsidies to universities and colleges more places can be offered, and legion(predicate) students who have the necessary qualifications can now afford to take up a place. Q2 places are now available and society will eventually benefit from the increased number of educated people.Again government has taken action to correct market failure. Thus we have seen that externalities can be positive or negative and they accrue to a third party. We saw in the case of the c hemical firm that negative externalities arose because the firm was concerned only with marginal private costs and ignored marginal amicable costs. Hence they could produce at a higher output and so create more pollution and possibly congestion. Market failure occurred and the government intervened to force the firm to address the social cost it caused. In our example the government legally restricted the activity.It could have forced the firm to internalise the spillover or it could have taken over the firm. Again firms consider only marginal private benefit, the benefit that the firm receives. They ignore the spillover benefit that society gains from devour this good or service, the marginal social benefit. It gave grants and subsidies. It could have given tax incentives or even taken over the service and provided it free. Consequently government steps in to increase this under-production and remove the welfare loss that results from free market equilibrium. See Figure 3. Figure 3 picStudent exercises/activities 1. Explain how the actions of large corporations and trade unions can influence demand and lead to non-optimal allocation of resources. (3 marks) 2. visualize the case for providing a) public goods, and b) merit goods free to the consumer. (6 marks) 3. Why might some economists argue against providing products free to the consumer? (3 marks) 4. Why does free market equilibrium not always represent the true cost of production? (3marks) 5. At what point is the optimum level of production of a public good reached? (2 marks) 6. Make definitions of new economic terms.SECTION 5 Guideline answers (Perfect competition) 1. There are four basic assumptions underpinning the theory of perfect competition. Do they hold for the agriculture industry? In the UK there are a large number of farmers furnish the market. No farm is large enough to influence price, so this characteristic holds. Farms are relatively easy to buy, especially today because of falling prof it margins. Hence exit and entry in the industry are unrestricted. intimacy of prices and market conditions are good because of constant updating by the farming press using modern technology.Hence knowledge is as perfect as it can be. Products are fairly homogeneous. Bramley apples from one orchard are almost identical to Bramley apples from another, although you could argue that quality/grade of products does vary. Hence there is a fairly strong case to support the statement. 2. (a)Because only above S1 is revenue greater than AVC and only then will the firm be able to make some contribution to fixed costs. (b)At this price the firm makes zero short run economic profit. At this point MR=MC=ATC. The break-even price is the one that yields zero short run profit or loss. c)The opportunity cost of keeping capital in the firm is moving it to the next best earning alternative. Normal profits are just enough to make it worthwhile to keep the capital in the firm. Consequently it is the come up an entrepreneur would earn in an alternative occupation and so is transfer earnings. (d)No. The amount necessary to keep capital in a firm in one area is not the amount necessary to keep capital in a similar industry in another area. cost could be different. (e)Economic profits or losses are signals to owners of capital elsewhere in the economy that they too should enter the industry.If some firms are making losses, this is a signal to entrepreneurs to stay out of the industry. It also signals to existing firms to be cautious about re-investing. However, in the long run in a perfectly competitive market only normal profits can be earned and so no such signals are given. (f)They must be constant. Guideline answers (Monopoly) 1. Profit maximisation takes place where MC=MR but not where they intersect. The price is fixed on the demand curve and so price must be greater than MR. 2. It depends on the number and affaire of the substitutes.The more numerous and closer the substitut es, the greater the price elasticity of demand and vice versa. 3. No. In the UK, the former British Rail glum in poor figures for many years. If the ATC curve is everywhere above the demand curve, losses will result and so it will not be profitable to produce. 4. Firms must have some market power it is a price maker. Firms must keep markets separate. The buyers in each market must have different elasticities of demand. 5. (a)The monopolist does not need to minimise costs to stay in business. Consequently it is productively inefficient and so wastes resources. b)It produces at a point where Price=MC. (c)A perfectly competitive firm produces at the lowest point of the AC curve and so is efficient. (d)Profit is shown by the rectangle seated above the AC curve bounded by price and output. It is supernormal or economic profit. (e)No. It makes normal profit that is included in ATC. (f)Where MC=MR. (g)In the short run the supply curve of the firm is the MC curve above the point where Pr ice=AVC. In monopoly there is no supply curve that is independent of demand. (h)The Monopolies and Mergers Commission investigates potential monopoly situations.It could force a monopoly to dissolve if they considered it to be against the public interest. The criterion is rather vague. (i)It could control prices or force it to work under a licence. Controlled prices would curb monopoly power of fixing too high a price and a limited quantity of production that would both exploit consumers. Again the government would not renew the licence unless the monopoly had performed within the given controls. Guideline answers (Imperfect competition) 1. Construct table from textbook. 2. It depends on the number of firms in the industry and on the strength of market power. 3.A price war can be very damaging for firms in an oligopolistic market. Instead they tend to restrict competition rather than attempt to drive main competitors out of the industry by reducing price. Advertising and branding is used to restrict competition. 4. At that output there is the greatest difference between total revenue and total cost and so profit is maximised. 5. Markets of perfect competition, monopoly and monopolistic competition are predictable because in them firms act independently. However, this is not so in an oligopolistic market. Firms are independent one firms actions affect competitors.This leads to uncertainty. 6. Draw diagram, then list main differences Perfect competitionMonopolistic competition Short runShort run Supernormal profits and lossesSupernormal profits and losses Demand curve slopingDemand curve horizontal Long runLong run Normal profitsNormal profits Produces at the lowest point Does not produce at the lowest of the AC curvepoint of the AC curve Price=MCPrice does not equal MC 7. Price leadership occurs often in an oligopolistic market. It could appear to be collusive because, after a overabundant firm raises price, others soon follow. However it is not planned.The d ominant firm is acting as a barometer for the rest of the industry that is experiencing the same pressures that caused the leader to alter price in the first place. The firms have not colluded. Guideline answers (Resource allocation) 1. Large corporations can manipulate by spending large sums on advertising and that allows them to sell what they produce rather than what consumers want to buy. intemperate trade unions, through industrial action and lobbying, can often get restrictions on imports and subsidies for industries such as coal mining and agriculture. Demand is influenced and so resources are not allocated in the best way. 2.Public goods like defence and law and order are demanded collectively and not individually because they are non-excludable. Hence most people think that they should be paid for out of public taxation and be free to the consumer. However, merit goods like health and education are private goods that can be bought and sold in the market place. They are usu ally under-consumed when externalities are taken into account and so the object is that the government should intervene because of the external benefits more consumption would bring to society. Hence the case for providing merit goods is not as strong as the case for providing public goods. . They would argue that it would lead to the misallocation of resources. If the good were free to consumers, they would consume up to the point where marginal utility is zero. Here the marginal cost of producing the last unit will be high and inefficiency will result. Consequently goods should not be provided free at the point of consumption. 4. Because social costs and social benefits must be added to private costs to represent true cost. 5. It occurs at the point where there is the greatest excess of total social benefit over total social cost, or where marginal social benefit is equal to marginal social cost.

Dove: evolution of a brand Essay

The aim of this case study, written by hind end Deighton, is to highlight and explain the r farmingary brand evolution outline at the basis of the extraordinary Unilevers come d receive results, achieved in 2007. Overview Masterbrands as divide of the Path to Grow strategy Unilever is a leading multinational society active in the food, home and personal care sectors. It has been developing glob aloney during the years, creating several of the intimately in(predicate) brands of the world.Its expansion allowed a geographical variegation but to a fault brought some problems of controls especially the brand portfolio had grown in an unstructured expression and required a change of course. Indeed, in February 2000 Unilever began the so called Path to Growth, a five-year strategic activity which included the reshaping and the shake-up of the brand portfolio. More precisely, the smart set planned to reduce its more than than 1,600 brands to four hundred and, among them, select a small number of Masterbrands responsible for creating a terminate and global identity to be shared with the range of products, included under each Masterbrand name.In this broad strategy it is situated the outstanding evolution of one of the survived brands, genus Columba, which was selected to become the Masterbrand for Unilever personal care products, beyond the sweetie take out category and including hair care products, deodorants, body lotions etc. dove Masterbrand strategy development fall, until February 2000, had always been orienting to meet its costumers needs, providing them products, with a scientifically be functional superiority. As a logical consequence, its advertisements had always been centered in promoting the cited higher functionality, preferring natural-looking women rather than fashion model icon in score to communicate honesty and authenticity.But a marketing strategy to fig a unique Masterbrand identity could no longer be ground on functional supe riority, as explained by Deighton it should create a kernel for come down, as a Masterbrand, to be applied to all its products. Pursuing the surmount way to develop the proper image, the management had to slightly change the sexual climax to the promotion. Elements such as client need, scientific research, the study of natural-looking women and honesty and authenticity survived as central persuasions, but they were reassembled and combined differently to accomplish the mentioned goal.The scientific research was no longer used to develop product functionality but, it was the starting guide of the new strategy a planetary investigation led by the global brand director for Dove, genus Silvia Lagnado, and interpreted with the help of two experts, revealed that women generally perceived aesthetic canons, typically illustrated in the advertisements, as very distant and unreachable. It was found out that closely of the women didnt mirror themselves in the advertise c erstpt of b eauty and a further survey showed that only the 2% of the interviewed described themselves as beautiful. Dove experts recognized a cultural issue the beauty-related belief of average women and the advertised beauty werent matching.The misalignment generated frustration in women and, as a relevant consequence for Dove, negatively affected the sales of health and care products. So, apprised of women dissatisfaction, of their personality, of their need to feel beautiful and keeping in mind Dove internal goals, the management gave life to the radical strategy and decided that Dove should have stood for a point of view. The management decided that natural-looking women would have had a key role in the take to the woods, but with a different office instead of promoting Doves products they would have promoted their average beauty, with honesty and authenticity. The campaign for Real Beauty was setup and ready to be implemented. The Aim(s) of the campaign born(p) from the simply idea of creating a common and clear image to be shared with the Dove Masterbrand products, The campaign for Real Beauty has been then veritable and changed as it went forward, pursuing further goals and, at the end, revealing itself somewhat different. As a matter of fact and as declared by Kathy OBrien, Dove marketing director for U.S, the company wanted to change the way society views beauty and provoke discussion and debate about satisfying beauty. This aim was reflected in the Doves mission statement, lucubrate for the campaign, and it was enhanced with a relevant aspect the expected repayment for the company, which was keenly expressed. The statement said Doves mission is to make more women feel beautiful every day by broadening the destine definition of beauty and inspiring them to take great care of themselves.And hither the real purpose of the whole initiative became clearer. With the declared aim to develop the common levers for the Masterbrand and to overcome the beauty-rela ted mismatch, emerged from the scientific research, Dove started the campaign. Then, inducing the partnership to a proactive involvement and to debate on such meaning, the company began in a certain sense the democratization process of the beauty. So, organism recognized as the entity responsible of the birth of such a waspish process and as a provider of a clear and rule-breaker point of view, Dove started to be on everyones lips.It remarkably increased its popularity and most important, allowed it to captivate a huge number of potential clients those women to be helped in perceiving themselves beautiful every day by broadening the definition of beauty and to be inspired to take great care of themselves. Paraphrasing the meaning of the peak to inspire to take great care of themselves, the commercial aim of Doves campaign for real beauty becomes apparent. What do the campaign trenchant?The combination of different elements do the design and the implementation of the campaign s o successful. As a first element, the campaign has its roots in the context of a clear brands mission, shared on a global level. The structure of the organization introduced by the Path to Growth strategy, which let out the responsibility for each brand between two groups, the Brand Development, alter and global in scope, and Brand Building, decentralized according to the regions in which Unilever was gnarly and responsible to bring the brand to life in each marketplace, intimately helped in defining a global mission.Once developed, the brands mission worked as a benchmark for each initiative a cornerstone around which, the whole campaign moved and evolved. Furthermore, the settlement of a well-defined mission was crucial to maintain the control over the campaign, once it had been shared with the community and on purpose exposed to its assessment, starting what I called the democratization process of the beauty concept. And exactly this process is the skylark that I consider t he sharpest and the most effective of the whole strategy.Indeed Dove, proposing and support its unconventional point of view, with the aim to provoke discussion and debate, really made people feel part of revolution and, at the same time, signally got the company closer to its potential clients. In order to increase womens engagement, Dove, at a certain point of the campaign, directly asked them to film their own daughters discussing their self-esteem challenges and later on, to create their own ads for Dove Cream crude oil Body Wash and to participate at the contest the Real Ads by Real Women. It extremely helped in creating a strong social interconnectedness between Doves supporters and the company they were joint forces against stereotypes of beauty.Moreover, the involvement of the community, feeling in a more general sense and which spontaneously commented and also criticized the campaign, was crucial to increasing Doves initiative range and for its goals fulfillment. This as pect was part of a further successful feature of the strategy, the so-called Media planning, which was revolutionary and tailored as well. Responsible of the strategy and the investments for the campaign diffusion, the Media planning unit, as said, relied on the engagement of the community and of Internet too and so, it centered the investments in creating and expanding the community of the real beauty seekers.It included the purchase of a Superbowl advertisement space. Thanks to such investments and to Youtube, which played a key role in the divulgation of the ads, the phenomenon reached an extraordinary dimension and, as a consequence, the debate started to spread all over, acquiring more and more media hype, insomuch as 16 proceeding of Today Show were dedicated to one of the campaign initiatives even Oprah given a full show to self-esteem, built around a Doves advertisement. Critics, discussions and parodies rose in sequence, did nothing but increased the relevancy of the camp aign and amplified its range, exactly as planned by Dove. These are the reasons that made the revolutionary and unprecedented Doves campaign so successful and helpful for the company in becoming one of 10 brands with the greatest percentage gain in brand health and business value in the past three years and in its $1.2 billion of grow. References bum Deighton, (Rev March 25, 2008), Dove Evolution of a brand, 9-508-047 Harvard Business school

Friday, January 25, 2019

Language and Pragmatics Essay

Language is the usual ground for e real 1. It is the thing that links a society together beca give this is how they pass by and understand each separate. It is common, therefore, that one culture empennage discover mazed when dealing with other(a) heap from contrasting cultures. This is due to the fact that tacit if they detect a certain wrangle, they will still need to learn the culture of the people to be suitable to communicate congruously. It is non abounding that one learns the words.A soulfulness should be in addition knowledgeable of the ship expression certain words or phrases are used or what is proper or not to verify during conversations for him or her to completely understand a particular culture. One of the things that I got interested in from the lecture was phatic communion, which is a form of discourse amid people which is not intended to stress or convey information but has the social function of establishing or maintaining social contact. T his is very ostensible in the Ameri discount culture. People ease up the tendency to automatically ask how the other is doing and the other is expected to suffice with just a simple answer.It is not meant to ask how a person is really feeling but it is just a polite counseling of acknowledging the persons presence. I pack experienced this form of communication since I started living in this farming. It is rough to miss it because people use it everyday in the grocery store, at the mall, coffee shop, still at school. I can relate to the examples in the lecture notes because Spanish is my commencement exercise language. I also had difficulty in learning the English language because of its complications like the phatic communion.At first, I thought that people were concerned round me and the things that are going on with my life. However, when I got used to the language, I came to achieve that this was just close to form of formality and that I am not expected to give a det ailed response. Living in this country, I have also learned that it is not unusual for people to know each other even if they are complete strangers. People take hello to each other when they pass them on the street. However, this is not be friendly for them. People have require accustomed to it and would feel ill-fitting if they did not acknowledge the other person.This is in contrast to other cultures where people would feel scared or uneasy if a stranger would say hello to them on the streets out of nowhere. They might think that the person has other intentions other than just to be polite. Personally, I think that people from contrary cultures talk fast because they are already used to the language and they have mastered it since the time they learned how to speak it. As such, fast-paced talk of the town is not only applicable to the Americans but to everyone as well. Some cultures can only seem soft spoken because of their voices but they are still fast-paced if one liste ns carefully.Another interesting observation is the difference between men and women in terms of listen. As a woman, I can relate to the lecture notes where it is indicated that women tend to nod to show that they are listening to someone. I actually do this just to show appreciation to the speaker, peculiarly when he or she is looking directly at me while speaking. It is a polite way of saying that I am listening although I whitethorn not be agreeing to what he or she is trying to say. This is different from what men do and I have noticed this in the way my husband reacts when someone is talking and he is in the audience.There is no indication that he is listening and will only be apparent when he nods his head in agreement with the speaker. I think that womens reaction is better because if it were me speaking, I would like to know if my audience is listening or not even if they whitethorn not agree to what I have to say. It is encouraging to know that the audience is interested in my wrangle and that I am not being ignored. The last topic that I found interesting is the different shipway on how to say no or refuse to someone. I agree with this because sometimes, people find it very difficult to say no in fear of offending the other person.As such, people find different ways to say no and this include offering an alternative, putting the blame on another, diverting the oversight to another topic, or through postponement. Doing these things will make it easier to say no and will not make the other person feel abominable about the situation. Personally, I do not have a threatening time saying no to people, especially if I strongly feel that refusing is the right thing to do. However, it is still good to know how to say no indirectly because we have to realize that people react to things differently.One may be fine with accepting no for an answer while others may take this against you. I think that learning a language and the ways of a certain culture is essential in being able to communicate with the cultures people effectively. This is the only for an outsider to become accepted and feel comfortable in using the language. It is also a way for a person to learn what is proper and what is unacceptable, which is important for some cultures because there are certain things that might offend them without the person even knowing.It can be said, therefore, that learning a second language is difficult, especially if the person learning it is not even living in the country or place where that language is being used. Exposure is needed for one to learn and acquire a cultures language and customs. Without experiencing it first-hand, it is hard to practice the language and apply it to ones everyday lives. It is also better to communicate with the people who use the language everyday so that the person can practice speaking it and using it much better. The person will be able to learn faster and easier if there is first-hand exposure.

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Ethics and Utilitarianism Essay

What is Utilitarianism? Utilitarianism is an respectable framework for effective clean reach. Its a philosophical impression that holds an human activityion to be held recompensefield if it tends to promote joy for the great number of people. The essence of utilitarianism is in its concept of diversion and pain. It defines the honorablely right actions as those actions that maximize pleasure or happiness and decrease pain or evil. Utilitarianism is all about fashioning the right choices that pull up stakes consequently promote the greatest amount of happiness.It fag end be traced all the way back to the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, however the name most frequently associated with utilitarianism is that of Jeremy Bentham. According to utilitarianism, we should evaluate an action by looking at is consequences, weighing the good effects against the bad effects on all the people affected by it. If the good outweighs the bad, it tends to be a good action if the bad outweigh the good, it tends to be a bad action.(DeGeorge 45) Ethical principles and theories be the foundations of honourable analysis because bring evidential characteristics to the decision-making process. Every single theory shows different points such as predicting the subject and following unmatcheds duties to others in order to reach an respectable decision. But an ethical theory can only to be helpful if the theory is directed towards a common set of goals. Ethical principles are the common goals that each theory tries to achieve in order to be successful.These goals include beneficence, least harm, respect for autonomy and justice. Using utilitarianism in ethical business practice would consider the good and bad consequence for everyone the action would affect, treat everybody as having equal rights, with no bias towards self, and would use it as an objective, quantitative way to make a incorrupt decision. Utilitarianism should be employ in all business decision-ma king process to maximize effects and minimize negative out lights. Businesses seek to make a profit.The cost-benefit analysis is a figure of speech of utility calculation. Most business often use cost-benefit as a decision making tool. Companies attempt to find out how much something is handout to cost them before taking any actions that should result in consequences golden to everyone involved. Just simply put, the company could make a profit while the consumer benefit from the product. To understand the definitions and concepts of the theory, in relation to business ethics, I will use the cover Pinto Case as an example.The Ford Pinto was sold with monstrous design faults in the fuel tank in which management knew the caper existed. (bizcovering) In a roll over, the fuel valve had a tendency to divulge fuel. That did not stop design and production, they rushed to assemble the vehicle and be were kept low in order to sell the auto for $2,000. It was successful, until one yea r four people died and one little boy horribly burned and disfigured. Then there were many other incidents that resulted in Ford being sued and had to pay millions in compensation.The cost-benefit analysis demonstrated an abuse of utilitarian principles to suit their needs, because the engineers were aware of the flaws, yet the company continued to sell the car without safety modifications. Utilitarianism, far from being a self-serving approach to righteous issues, demands careful, objective, and impartial evaluation of consequences. This philosophy is based on the belief that the moral and ethical value of ones action should be judged by the consequence of such action.But utilitarianism states that the morality of an action is best judged by the utility or usefulness of such an action. During the 1980s, Oliver North had to explain wherefore he lied to congressional committees about his role in the Iran-Contra affair, the cut-rate sale of U. S. arms to Iran for the release of ho stages that were held by Iran, he replied, Lying does not come easily to me. But we all had to weigh in the balance the remnant between lies and lives. Norths conduct was an example of utilitarianism, his method of justifying his acts of deceit is a form of moral reasoning.So long as a course of action produces maximum benefits for everyone, utilitarianism does not care whether the benefits are produced by lies, manipulation, or coercion. Utilitarianism was once a radical philosophy. It attempted to set by a moral system obscure from divine revelation and scriptural morality. Utilitarianism focused on results rather than rules. But now has been embraced by so many simply because it seems to make a good deal of reek and seems relatively simple to apply. It provided for a way for people to live moral lives apart from the Bible and its rules.Logic rather than obedience to biblical principles guides the ethical decision-making of utilitarianism. While Jeremy Bentham developed his e thical system around the idea of pleasure and built it on ancient hedonism which pursued animal(prenominal) pleasure and avoided physical pain John Stuart Mill modified this philosophy and developed it apart from Benthams hedonistic foundation. Mill used the same utilitarian compaction but instead focused on maximizing the general happiness by calculating the greatest good for the greatest number.Whereas Bentham established act utilitarianism, Mill established rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarian holds that each item-by-item action, in all its concreteness and in all its details, is what should be to the utilitarian test. (DeGeorge 47) dominate utilitarian holds that utility applies appropriately t classes of actions rant than to given exclusive actions. (DeGeorge 48) According to Mill, one determines what is right by comparing the consequences of all pertinent factors of diffeerent rules for a specific circumstance.In conclusion, utilitarianism is all about making the right c hoices that will consequently promote the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. Work Cited DeGeorge, Richard T. Business Ethics. 7th Ed. New Jersey assimilator Hall. 2010 Applying Utilitarianism to Business Ethics The Ford Pinto Case. Annie Lundy February 6, 2009 Utilitarianism. utilitarianism. com. Henry R. West. n. d. Calculating Consequences The Utilitarian get down to Ethics. Claire Andre and Manuel Velasquez. n. d.

Friday, January 18, 2019

Security Council

bail Council The joined Nations surety Council (UNSC) is the organ of the unite Nations charged with maintaining peace and security among nations. temporary hookup other organs of the get together Nations only make recommendations to phallus governments, the credentials Council has the motive to make decisions which member governments must carry out downstairs the United Nations Charter. The decisions of the Council are known as United Nations certificate Council Resolutions. The aegis Council is made up of 15 member states, consisting of five fixed set and decennium temporary seats.The durable five are China, France, Russia, the United commonwealth and the United States. These members hold veto power over substantive alone not procedural resolutions allowing a permanent member to block acceptance but not debate of a resolution unacceptable to it. The ten temporary seats are held for two-year terms with member states voted in by the UN General Assembly on a regional b asis. The judicature of the certification Council is rotated alphabetically separately month. Members. Security Council members must ceaselessly be present at UN headquarters in New York so that the Security Council shadow meet at any time.This requirement of the United Nations Charter was adopted to address a weakness of the League of Nations since that agreement was often unable to respond quickly to crises. The role of president of the Security Council involves setting the agenda, presiding at its meetings and overseeing any crisis. It rotates in alphabetical order of the members label in English. There are two categories of membership in the UN Security Council changeless Members and Elected Members. Permanent membersThe Council seated five permanent members who were before drawn from the victorious powers after World War II 1. The nation of China 2. The French Republic 3. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 4. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelan d 5. The United States of the States The five permanent members of the Security Council are the only nations recognized as possessing nuclear weapons to a lower place the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, although it lacks universal validity, as some nuclear nations switch not signed the treaty.This nuclear status is not the result of their Security Council membership, though it is sometimes apply as a modern-day confession for their continued presence on the body. India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel possess nuclear weapons alfresco of the anti-proliferation framework established by the Treaty. In 2004, four of the five permanent members were also the worlds top four weapons exporters when measured by arms entertain China was seventh. Each permanent member state has veto powers, which can be used to void any substantive resolution. A atomic number 53 veto from a permanent member outweighs any majority.This is not technically a veto, rather just a nay vote tho a nay vote from a permanent member blocks the passageway of the resolution in question. Elected members Ten other members are choose by the General Assembly for two-year terms starting on 1 January, with five replaced each year. The members are chosen by regional groups and confirmed by the United Nations General Assembly. The African bloc chooses common chord members the Latin America and the Caribbean, Asiatic, and Western European and Others blocs choose two members each and the Eastern European bloc chooses one member.Also, one of these members is an Arab country, alternately from the Asian or African bloc. The current (2007) elected members, with the regions they were elected to represent and their Permanent Representatives are 1. Belgium (Western Europe) Amb. Johan C. Verbeke 2. Republic of the Congo (Africa) Amb. Basile Ikouebe 3. Ghana (Africa) Amb. Nana Effah-Apenteng 4. Indonesia (Asia) Amb. Rezlan Ishar Jenie 5. Italy (Western Europe) Amb. Marcello Spatafora 6. Panama (Latin Am erica and Caribbean) Amb. Ricardo Alberto Arias 7. Peru (Latin America and Caribbean) Amb.Oswaldo de Rivero 8. Qatar (Asia, Arab) Amb. Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser 9. Slovakia (Eastern Europe) Amb. Peter Burian 10. South Africa (Africa) Amb. Dumisani Kumalo Veto power Under article 27 of the UN Charter decisions in the 15-member Security Council on all substantive mattersfor example, a decision calling for direct measures related to the settlement of a contravention require the affirmative votes of nine members. A negative votea vetoby a permanent member prevents adoption of a proposal, even if it has received the required number of affirmative votes.Abstention is not regarded as a veto despite the wording of the Charter. Since the Security Councils inception, China (ROC/PRC) has used five vetoes France, 18 Russia/USSR, 122 the United Kingdom, 32 and the United States, 81. The majority of Russian/Soviet vetoes were in the first ten years of the Councils existence. Since 1984, the nu mbers concur been China, two France, three Russia/USSR, four the United Kingdom, 10 and the United States, 43. adjective matters are not subject to a Security Council veto.This provision is crucial because it prevents the veto from being used to avoid discussion of an issue. Status of non-members A state that is a member of the UN, but not of the Security Council, may participate in Security Council discussions in matters that the Council agrees that the countrys interests are particularly affected. In recent years, the Council has interpreted this loosely, enabling numerous countries to share part in its discussions or not depending on how they interpret the validity of the countrys interest.Non-members are routinely invited to take part when they are parties to quarrels being considered by the Council. Role of the Security Council Under Chapter Six of the Charter, Pacific Settlement of Disputes, the Security Council may inquire any dispute, or any situation which might lead to outside(a) friction or give rise to a dispute. The Council may recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment if it determines that the situation might cross international peace and security. These recommendations are not spinal column on UN members.Under Chapter Seven, the Council has broader power to decide what measures are to be taken in situations involving threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, or acts of antagonism. In such situations, the Council is not limited to recommendations but may take action, including the use of armed force to maintain or restore international peace and security. This was the basis for UN armed action in Korea in 1950 during the Korean War and the use of coalition forces in Iraq and Kuwait in 1991. Decisions taken under Chapter Seven, such as economic sanctions, are binding on UN members.The UNs role in international collective security is defined by the UN Charter, which gives the Security Council the power to * Investiga te any situation toilsome international peace * Recommend procedures for peaceful resolution of a dispute * Call upon other member nations to completely or partially relegate economic relations as well as sea, air, postal, and radio communications, or to sever diplomatic relations and * Enforce its decisions militarily, if necessary. The United Nations has helped prevent many outbreaks of international violence from growing into wider conflicts.It has opened the way to negotiated settlements through its function as a center of debate and negotiation, as well as through UN-sponsored fact-finding missions, mediators, and truce observers. UN Peacekeeping forces, comprised of troops and equipment supplied by member nations, have usually been able to limit or prevent conflict, although sometimes not. Some conflicts, however, have proven to be beyond the capacity of the UN to influence. profound to the success of UN peacekeeping efforts is the willingness of the parties to a conflict to come to terms peacefully through a viable political process.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Population Problem in Bangladesh Essay

Bangladesh is one of the worlds almost densely populated countries with 150 million slew, 49 fork of whom live below the subject pauperism line. In addition, child malnutrition estimate rates of 48 percent, in condition that is tied to the low kind status of women in Bangladeshi society. Contents1 General overview of the Bangladesh thriftiness2 Rural and urban distress3 Causes of farming(prenominal) and urban want4 Environmental troubles and want5 Implications of poverty in Bangladesh6 See to a fault7 ReferencesGeneral overview of the Bangladesh economyIn Bangladesh, there atomic number 18 many fusss like, poor infrastructure, political instability, corruption,and insufficient advocator supplies etc, but the Bangladesh economy has gr avow 5-6% per form since 1996. However, Bangladesh still remains a poor, overpopulated, and inefficiently-governed nation with about 45% of the Bangladeshis being employed in the tillage sector.1 Rural and urban povertyBangladesh is one of the worlds poorest countries. Bangladesh has to figure on international help. Since the 1990s, there has been a declining trend of poverty by 1% each year, with the help of international assistance.2 According to World cant in 2005, 40% of the cosmos was still be below the national poverty line.3The community in Bangladesh is predominantly unsophisticated, with almost 80% of the macrocosm living in the pastoral areas.4 Many of them live in contrary areas that lack services such as commandment, health clinics and adequate roads, specially road links to markets.2 A low estimate of 20% of the rural poor is in degenerative poverty. They suffer from persistent food insecurity, avouch no land and assets, are often uneducated and may besides suffer serious illnesses or disabilities. a nonher(prenominal) 29% of the rural race is considered moderately poor. Though they may own a lilliputian spot of land and some livestock and generally collapse enough to eat, their di ets lack nutritional values. As a case of health problems or innate(p) disasters, they are at risk of sliding deeper into poverty. Women are among the poorest of the rural poor, particularly when they are the sole heads of their households. They suffer discrimination, have few earning opportunities and their nutritional ingestion is often inadequate.2In the urban areas, there is about 37% of the urban population living below national poverty line.5 For those living in urban areas, especially the capital Dhaka, and major industrial cities such as C profittagong, Khulna, and Rajshahi, they enjoy a better standard of living, with electricity, gas, and clean water supplies. in spite of this, there is still a significant proportion of Bangladeshis living in slums that fall apart during the monsoon season and have no regular electricity, control access to health care and to clean drinking water.6 Causes of rural and urban povertyOne of the main eccentrics of rural poverty is due th e soils geographical and demographic characteristics. A large proportion of the rude is low-lying, and thus is at a high risk to satiateing. Many of the rural poor live in areas that are prone to extreme yearbook stuffing which cause huge misuse to their crops, homes and livelihoods. In order to reconstruct their homes, they often have to resort to moneylenders, and that causes them to fall deeper into poverty. In addition, these natural disasters also cause outbreaks of cholera and other waterborne and diarrheal diseases such as dengue and malaria which will affect them physically and overturn their productivity levels.247Another cause of rural poverty is due to the fast growing population rate. It places huge pressure on the environment, causing problems such as wear and flooding, which in turn leads to low agricultural productivity.The causes of urban poverty are due to the limited occupation opportunities, degraded environment, and bad housing and sanitation. The urban poor hold jobs that are labor demanding, thus affecting their health conditions. Therefore, the urban poor are in a difficult spot to escape poverty.7 Environmental problems and povertyWith 80% of the country situated on the flood plains of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna and those of several other minor rivers, the country is prone to good flooding.While some flooding is beneficial to agriculture, high levels of flooding have been piece to be a retardant on agricultural maturement.8 On average, 16% of household income per year is lost due to flooding, with roughly 89% of the loss in property and assets. Of these, households engaged in farming and fishing suffer a greater loss relative to income.9A optimistic relationship exists between flood risk and poverty as metrical by household income, with people living under the poverty scepter facing a higher risk of flooding, as measured by their proximity to rivers and flood depth.9 Property prices also tend to be lower the highe r the risk of flooding,10 making it more likely that someone who lives in a flood-prone area is poor and vice versa, as they might not be able to afford safer accommodation. Also, they tend to depend solely or largely on crop cultivation and fisheries for their livelihood and thus are harder hit by floods relative to their income.Important to the finances of farmers operating small farms is their self-sufficiency in rice and floods adversely affect this factor, destroying harvests and arable land. Farmers hit are often forced to undertake distressed land selling11 and in doing so, risk being pushed into or deeper into poverty. In areas hard hit by floods, especially disaster floods such as the 1988 flood, several researchers have found that many of the affected households have resorted to selling off assets such as land and livestock to mitigate losses.1213Also, in an area hard-hit by poverty and prone to floods, it was found that many of the poor were unwilling to pay for flood pro tection. The main reason cited had been lack of financial resources although it was found that many of these people are willing to substitute non-financial means of payment such as labour, harvest or part of their land13The above is problematic as it creates a vicious cycle for the poor of Bangladesh. Because the poor may not be able to afford safer housing, they have to live near the river which raises their risk of flooding. This would result in greater damage suffered from the floods, driving the poor into selling assets and pushing them further into poverty. They would be further deprived of sufficient resources needed to forestall extensive damage from flooding, resulting in even more flood damage and poverty. It then becomes even harder to escape this cycle. Even those farmers slightly above the poverty line are but just one bad flood away from the ranks of the poor. Implications of poverty in BangladeshThe Gross National Income (GNI) per capita measured in 2008 prices is a s taggering low of US $520 while GNI Purchasing ply Parity per capita is US $1440 (2008).14 This is a dismal figure when compared to other veritable economies. Even though the poverty rate in Bangladesh has been decreasing, it is doing so at a slow rate of less than 2% per year.15 49% of the population still remains below the poverty line. Poverty matters because it affects many factors of growth education, population growth rates, health of the workforce and public policy. Poverty is most concentrated in the rural areas of Bangladesh, hence creating disparities between the rural and urban areas. However, urban poverty remains a problem too.In particular, poverty has been linked strongly to education and employment. Research papers published by the Bangladesh Institute of Studies (BIDS) have shown that poverty acts as both a cause and effect of a lack of education, which in turn adversely affects employment opportunities. Having an unskilled workforce also greatly decreases the pro ductivity of the workforce which decreases the charm of Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) and thus impedes sustainable economic growth. In essence, education is an important contribution to the social and economic development of a country.Secondly, move up landlessness is also a consequence of poverty in Bangladesh. In the year 2000, among the poorest of the poor the poorest 20 percent of the population four out of louver owned less than fractional an acre of land. Not only did many own no acreage at all, but landlessness has been increasing in rural Bangladesh along with the number of small and marginal farms.16 The 2000 HIES found nearly half (48 percent) of the countrys rural population to be effectively landless, owning at most 0.05 acres. Roughly three-fifths of all households in the two poorest quintiles fell into that category.Lastly, for the chronic poor, issues such as food security and health hamper social mobility. According to a study done by the World trust on D haka, the poor suffers from a lack of proper healthcare in their areas due to the expensive and poor quality health care services.17 The poverty stricken areas either do not have the available facilities, or can only afford low quality healthcare. This is a problem that is common in both the rural and urban poor. For the urban poor, the problem has worsened as they can only afford to stay in slums where there are problems of overcrowding and unhygienic living conditions. These two factors results in the pass out of diseases amongst the poor whom cannot afford better healthcare. Also, one cannot deny that a sizeable and well-fed citizen is better suited for increased productivity as part of the workforce. Thus, poverty matters because it affects the social welfare of citizens.