Saturday, August 31, 2019

Disgrace Essay

In Disgrace by J. M. Coetzee we are introduced to David Lurie, the protagonist and narrator of this novel. David Lurie is a 52 year old divorced man, who lives in Cape Town, South Africa, as a respected romantic poetry professor at a university. His life is full of sexual, non-committed relationships. After being accused of inappropriate behavior with a student, Lurie loses his job at the university and must move in with his daughter, Lucy, in the country. Throughout the novel we see many references to animals, especially in relation to Lurie.Because he is the narrator of the novel, these animal references lead the reader to believe Lurie is describing himself through these animals. Lurie uses descriptions of animals as a way to describe how he feels about himself. We see Lurie go from a sexually charged predator, to a strange beast who has been hunter, to a dog-man, and then finally to a helpless dog who is ready to be put out of his misery. David Lurie is a predator at the beginnin g of the novel. He is a man searching for sex, and for the most part he is successful at it.His first sexual interest he introduces us to is Soraya, a prostitute who he has been going to see for a long time. Lurie describes them having sex by comparing them to snakes engaged in intercourse, â€Å"lengthy, absorbed, but rather abstract, rather dry, even at its hottest† (Coetzee 5 ). Being the narrator, this shows the reader how David views himself, as well as Soraya, as cold, scary, almost evil, creatures, like snakes. Snakes give off a very negative emotion because they are dangerous animals, and this comparison leads us to believe David too must be a dangerous animal.Soraya eventually tries to cut ties with David, but David being the predator he is cannot let his prey go. He is able to find Soraya’s home phone number and when he calls her she is livid he would cross that line. â€Å"But then, what should a predator expect when he intrudes into the vixen's nest, into the home of her cubs? † (Coetzee 10). Soraya is a mother, and feels like David calling her home is going to be a threat to her family, especially her children. The next instance where we see David describing himself as a predator is during his first sexual encounter with his student, Melanie.David is very persistent in sleeping with Melanie, and once he has finally chased her down he describes the experience as â€Å"like a rabbit when the jaws of the fox close on its neck† (Coetzee 25). He is well aware by making this statement that Melanie does not want to be in this situation with him, but he does not care, he has been chasing this prey for too to just let it go. This is not the last time David engages Melanie regardless of her strong reluctance however, and Melanie eventually has enough and reports Lurie to the University where he teaches.David Lurie goes from being the predator, to now being the one who is being chased. He is being chased by the University committe e who is investigating David’s indiscretions with Melanie. The committee is described by Lurie as â€Å"hunters who have cornered a strange beast and do not know how to finish it off. † (Coetzee 56). The tables have turned and Lurie is now this strange beast that has been hunted down. David refuses to apologize however, and instead loses his job.Lurie could have simply said sorry for his actions and he would have had a chance to keep his position at the University, but in his mind he did not do anything wrong. He compares himself an old neighbor’s dog, saying that every time a â€Å"bitch† would be in the yard the dog would become so excitable that he could not be controlled. The dog was not allowed to go through with his natural desires, which caused the dog to act strange and just run around the garden â€Å"with its ears flat and its tail between its legs, whining, trying to hide. (Coetzee 69 ). David sees himself in this dog, he is being punished and being told he is not allowed to do something that feels so natural to him. He says that the dog would have preferred to be shot over being denied its natural urges. David chose to be shot (lose his job) when he refuses to express that he did anything wrong by sleeping with Melanie. After losing his job David must go live with his daughter, Lucy, out in the country.While living with Lucy, David goes through a lot, and through helping take care of her dogs we see a softer side of him through his descriptions of these dogs. â€Å"The dogs are brought to the clinic because they are unwanted,† (Coetzee 146) Lurie says. He cares about the dogs because he too feels unwanted. â€Å"Well, now he has become a dog-man. † (Coetzee 146) David is one with these dogs, abandoned and miserable, unable to live the lives they want to be living. The dogs and David are trapped out in the country on a farm just waiting for the end.David finally does give up and we see this through his deci sion to put down the dog that he had become very close to, Driepoot, the young dog David â€Å"has come to feel a particular fondness for† (Coetzee 214-215). David had bonded with Driepoot, even signing his Opera to the dog at one point. He felt sorry for Driepoot, he felt very much like the dog. In the end of the novel, by choosing Driepoot to be put down â€Å"a (his, the dog’s) time must come, it cannot be evaded† and carries the dog, â€Å"the one who likes music† (Coetzee 219), to Bev where he will be killed.In the last sentence of the novel David states that he is â€Å"giving him up† (Coetzee 220), which is essentially David stating the he is the one giving up. Like Driepoot, David Lurie is being put out of his misery. David Lurie’s life goes through dramatic changes throughout the novel Disgrace. A once respected professor, he becomes â€Å"a mad old man who sits among the dogs singing to himself. † (Coetzee 218). Lurie uses d escriptions of animals as a way to describe how he feels about himself.He goes from a predator whose main focus in life is satisfying his sexual desires, to a man who feels like a ‘strange beast’ that has been hunted by the University. David then turns to his daughter’s farm where he begins working with dogs and we see a softer David Lurie, a man who feels like the abandoned dogs who are waiting for their end to come. By the end of Disgrace we see that David is ready to accept his own end, he wants to be put out of his misery just like he does for the dog he has bonded so much with. Works Cited Coetzee, J. M. Disgrace. New York: Penguin, 1999. Print.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Events: Event Management Essay

Event in a single word means a â€Å"happening†. There are many in our lives. Many of them personal and many relating to a business. While traveling to work you might see or meet a celebrity. It is an event for you. At work you might get a promotion. It is an event. Your company merges with a multinational corporation. It is an event. On your way back from work you meet your former sweet heart and have coffee with him/her. It is an event. When you return home your spouse informs you that the neighbors’ daughter ran off with your cook. It is an event. What is Management? Management is the ability of an individual or an organized group to achieve the result desired by the individual/group within the ambit of constraints imposed by the internal and external environment. A working couple desire to own a house and a motorcar from their earnings. The internal environment is, what is their disposable income, what are their current savings, how much more can they save, what is the area of house they desire and which type of car. Can they adjust to the new situation of spending less without any internal disputes between them? Can they take on the added responsibilities of paying EMI’s for both the new assets? And many more questions & issues. The external environment is the presumption of no increase in taxes, stability of employment, availability of loans for both assets at reasonable rates of interest, cost of both the assets as envisaged and other related issues. If both match substantially you have â€Å"managed† your personal objectives. However, if you find that the internal environment result in a mismatch of cash flow you may drop the idea of buying a car initially or you may decide to buy a smaller house or may decide to shift your residence to distant suburbs or may decide to postpone your decision of purchase to another period till the internal environment is more conducive. You have once again been â€Å"managed† by a change / alteration in personal objectives. In business the situation is the same. You want to start your own business in events. Your internal environment is. Your ability to bring in capital. Your ability to raise loans. Your connections with the industry, your leadership, marketing, financial abilities, your vision, your objectives, your objectives, your place to do the business, your staffing capabilities , your ability to take risks and other related issues. The external environment will be: Competition in the industry, Stability of the macro economic factors, the spend on the event business/industry, availability of competent Staff at the right costs, availability of the right office, godown, workshop space to suit your budget, the willingness of contacts to network for your cause, availability of finance at right rates, legal aspects of event business and other related issues. If both your internal and external environment suits your situation you are in the â€Å"event business â€Å"or for that matter any business. If the law bans â€Å"entertainment events† you may change your objectives and do only corporate/religious events. IF workshop space far exceeds your budget cost you may outsource parts of production to production – house; you have â€Å"managed†. Event Management â€Å"Event Management means and includes strategically and competently managing an organized â€Å"happening† so that the goals/objectives/purpose of holding that event are substantially achieved by allocation of resources on hand so maximum advantage both economic and strategic is achieved. An event is generally planned well in advance in a logical and coordinated manner as there are no retakes in an event. In many cases â€Å"Event Management† is synonymous with â€Å"Disaster Management†. In an event disaster is waiting to happen. A planned well coordinated event averts or at best mitigates a disaster. Event Management essentially is part of a marketing exercise. We are aware that Marketing is categorized into Indirect Marketing and Direct Marketing. Indirect Marketing is essentially advertising and publicity. The message is addressed to the world at large which includes that segment of the market which is prospects and probable converts to the brand/product/service advertised and/or publicized. The reach of advertising/publicity is substantial and a variety of mediums are used to solicit custom of the world at large. It has proved substantially effective which is evidenced by huge spends on advertising more specifically by corporate and business. As opposed to that, Direct Marketing is addressed to a specific audience or a target segment, be it in the form of Direct Mailers, Tele Marketing, P.R. Meets, Salesmanship, Emails and Events. In case of Direct Marketing the focus is clear and the audience/target is specific. Event Management as Part of Direct Marketing: Designing and producing an event – whether it be a meeting, corporate event, fund-raising gala, conference, convention, incentive or other special event such as a wedding has been compared to directing a movie but is actually more like a live stage production. It is done in one take and there no dress rehearsals. An event is the reflection of the corporate entity. It is part of the direct marketing the corporate has programmed. It gives direct access to the target market which it needs to address, be it a sales conference, a fund raiser, a religious sammellan, a road show or any other event. An event gives the corporate a focus on the right audience and keeps in making the audience aware of the policies, programs, the marketing of ideas to this target group. There is a direct exchange of information between the corporate and its target audience. It creates a bond between the management and the audience for whom the event has been organized. An event is that aspect of Direct Marketing where the communication it proposes to convey is not dissipated nor it is to the world at large. It is narrowed to that segment or group with whom the corporate/management needs to identify with. Events are big business the world over and there are professional firms who organize the set up of such events. Events actually flow from the marketing or the corporate team in any large organization. It is these teams that decide whether an event will help in furtherance of the marketing plan and how and to whom the event needs to be addressed. Once the holding of an event is decided upon, the major part of organizing of an event is looked into. This will include the theme, the place and the logistics. And of course the budget. In India the event industry is in a nascent stage. The industry is disorganized and every individual who organizes a birthday party classifies himself as an event manager. There are very few firms in the country who organize and set up events as professionals with a proper vision, infrastructure, systems and personnel. Correct figures are not available but it is estimated that corporate spends are around Five Thousand Million rupees in the organization of events annually and with globalization and influx of multinationals; the industry is expected to grow at a phenomenal 50% per year. The first series of questions the corporate management/marketing team needs to ask are: 1. Should I hold an event? 2. Which target group needs to be addressed at the event? 3. What are the funds required to stage an event? 4. Can the company afford to set aside part of the marketing budget for organizing an event? 5. Is the purpose of the event important to justify the outlay? 6. What would be the benefits accruing to me both financially as well as strategically? The same questions, in a different format, are applicable to non–corporate events. Take â€Å"Weddings† for example. Wedding is a social/personal event. To put it in the humorous text â€Å"it is a public display of a private intention†. It has a target audience of friends, relatives and business associates. It has a theme, strategy and budgetary constraints. It is a happening of a lifetime, which should be remembered not only by the bridal couple and their immediate families but also by all the invitees. Many times it is more complex in execution as compared to corporate events. It is estimated by India Today in one of its 2007 – 2008 issues, the Indian Wedding Industry to be worth about Rs 50,000 cores. This includes everything. From jewelry, to clothes, to food and beverage, venues, ceremonies of various events connect with the wedding.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

If you came back to earth as someone or something else, who or what Essay

If you came back to earth as someone or something else, who or what would it be - Essay Example The name of Bush in the political grounds of America is not new and almost everyone is aware of his status and name. Bush’s decision making power, motivational speeches, devotion and confidence are some traits which I admire personally. The position he holds in American political arena is yet another positive feature that makes him an ideal for me. I personally believe that he is a good leader with excellent communication skills. His attitude, wisdom and thoughts are all marvelous as they become a part of America’s success. His power and authority are the main factors which influence my thoughts and fascinate me towards his personality. Wealth and riches that surround George W. Bush are yet another fascination for me. I would like to be G. W. Bush as his mind, intelligent thoughts and influencing personality led him to become a successful man. I would like to have a mind and personality like him so I may rule one of the powerful nations in the world. Being G. W. Bush wo uld help me in making some necessary changes which I feel may help the poor or minority groups living in America. Lastly, the fame, reputation and reverence that G. W. Bush holds, is desirable by majority of the American population. I wish to have a name as shining in the world as he has.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Examining Culture as a Process Using Three Texts Essay

Examining Culture as a Process Using Three Texts - Essay Example Examining Culture as a Process Using Three Texts The interesting contrast of Marjane Satrapi‘s struggle, depicted in Persepolis 2, is one of an Islamic woman wearing a veil who listens to forbidden music and smokes marijuana. The struggle which exists within Marjane is truly that of so many women in bondage to patriarchal religions and societies who experience some of what modern women may experience. The voice inside of Marjane that reminds her to wear her veil or to be secretive about her activities, is the deeply imbedded voice of her roots and cultural upbringing. Marjane however, is simply trying to discover who she is, independent from the role that her society has placed on her. Marjane’s eventful process of going from veiled Muslim woman with many restrictions in life, to educated, self actualized woman, is both long and painful, â€Å"To educate myself, I had to understand everything, starting with myself, me, Marji, the woman. So, I threw myself into reading my mother‘s favorite bookâ€Å" (Satrapi, p 21). This type of struggle is similarly portrayed within the lives of the Ganguli family in The Namesake. Ashoke and Ashima Ganguli are both submerged into American culture, having both been raised in India. This takes place once they are married and move to America to pursuit Ashoke’s Engineering degree at MIT. The process of adaptation is seemingly much less difficult for Ashoke than for his wife by arranged marriage Ashima. The life of a woman and a woman’s struggles in particular are present in both of these texts.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Advanced financial reporting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Advanced financial reporting - Essay Example Also, it includes comprehensive description of disclosures that ought to be given in an annual report that gives a transparent, true and fair picture of company’s performance to existing and potential investors. After this follows second question which focuses on comparison between voluntary and mandatory guidelines in respect of environmental reporting. It requires detailed discussion about effectiveness of both guidelines and what advantages and disadvantages does their compliance offer for a company. The last question inquires about the current and proposed programmes to be effective in future relating to environmental compliances and regulations and how they might be helpful in ensuring better transparency and clarity of environmental reporting. Further the discussion entails about corporate measures that organizations should use to become alert and informed about regulations which are applicable in their case, about amendments therein and strategies to comply with them ad equately. Finally, the paper closes with concluding statements about how companies should be more environmentally responsible in its operations and true in provision of its facts and disclosures in annual reports for its shareholders and potential investors. ... Therefore, they take reasonable steps to mitigate harmful and adverse effects to acceptable levels. Some examples of environmental footprints include water spills, contamination, poisonous wastages and leakages, air pollution, carbon emission, greenhouse gas emission etc. Regulatory bodies and environmental authorities have been working constantly to make environmental laws and regulations stricter to protect public interests and give better picture to investors. Few mandatory guidelines have already been placed that are compulsory to be followed while other voluntary guidelines have been published for different industries to identify best benchmark practices which might be followed by entities on own motion to depict ‘greener’ reputation and public image to satisfy its members and potential investors. However, in order to ensure compliance with environmental frameworks, it is pivotal to be fully aware of all applicable regulations. Environmental risks can be mitigated t hrough establishment of Environmental Management System and allotment of a dedicated team responsible for addressing all environmental concerns. Furthermore, organizations must account for relevant environmental costs and provisions for future obligations such as dismantling, cleanup and litigation costs in its financial statements. Environmental reporting disclosures can be as comprehensive as an entity would consider adequate since only few mandatory regulations exist. Therefore, environment-friendly stance of any organization shall depend on how detailed are the disclosures provided by it in its annual report and accounts. Question 1 In view of the contents of the document provided and the materials covered in the module, does the annual report currently

Monday, August 26, 2019

All the presidents men. Movie review Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

All the presidents men. Movie review - Assignment Example â€Å"All the president’s men film† is an accurately directed journalism film concerning the process used by the investigative reporters as the viewers may have any right to expect. This process finally overpowers the whole narrative. The viewer’s especially the aspiring journalists aimless in a pool of denials, evasions, false leads and a lot of coincidences due to lack of integrity in the whole of the investigative team report. These thousands of falsehood statements resulted into the Watergate attack and the resignation of Nixon (All the president’s men). The â€Å"all president’s men movie† is thus a more detailed film about journalism field rather than basing its facts on the results. This is not to say the movie is not a good one in the accomplishment of what it sets to deliver in as far as the field of journalism is concerned. This film provides a well-structured and observant study the working journalists. The outstanding features of the â€Å"all president’s men film† is portrayed in the characters such as Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein. These two individuals are lucky after they had replaced Walter Burns and Hildy Johnson. This replacement succeeds in the suggestion of the mixture of self-doubt, courage, suspicion and excitement that heated the Washington Post headlines when two young prolific reporters who are Bob and Carl finally concluded their investigative report on the presidency. In deed, this was the peak of courage in the journalism field portrayed by this movie other than the revolving theme of conflict in it. The newspaper movies such as this one are usually used to drama up the exhilaration and ignore both the waiting feeling and boredom. This movie is all about the boredom and the cumbersome digging feelings in the waiting for the outcome in the final episode of the film. The thematic setting of this movie depends on what the viewer’s already know about the looming Watergate saga to provide a given quantity of excitement. Given the factual statements that William Goldman’s screenplay is almost in dialogue form, the journalists are able to follow this script more attentively and learn of the roots of conflict in the journalism field. Almost wholly, the â€Å"all president’s men movie† contain a sequences of scenes showing people either talking or completely silent with one another. Many of the upcoming journalists for Allan J. Pakula envy this aspect of journalism; the director of this movie has done a commendable job in the keeping of the pace stiff. The tensions

Sunday, August 25, 2019

PEER REVIEW AND SELF ASSESSMENT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

PEER REVIEW AND SELF ASSESSMENT - Essay Example We also connected and worked together, and no one dodge d his or her responsibilities and that made it easier finishing the group work within the agreed time. However, there was a weakness in that some of the members did not respond on time, which resulted in performing in a rush so as be done with the project within the due date. In addition, communication was another issue, whereby, some members like Jennifer and Carolyn always responded late on the discussion board. It changed towards the end, though, for Carolyn as she increases the number of time she communicated. Jennifer, however, never changed and always had an excuse. Another challenge is that, initially there was we had a problem with nursing diagnosis, whereby, we kept going back and forth, on which diagnosis would be correct for the patient. Eventually, we all agreed on the final diagnosis and everyone consented on the final decision. In terms of contribution, I would say that it varied although during the diagnosis it wa s equal. Jennifer contributed the least as she always presented excuses for not being able to carry out a task. In a future project, what I would do differently is ensuring that I have every group member’s number such that communication is improved. Further, I would ensure that we hold group meetings frequently, which possibly would make everyone more serious and effective. During the first few classes, I assumed this course was easy and thought that it only involved the assessment of patients. However, I have come to learn that advance health assessment is very broad and requires a lot of critical thinking. It has developed me in the way I am to assess my patients which and now I am able to issue a quality patient examination. It was challenging at the beginning but through constant consultation with the professor and studying of books such as Jarvis Physical

Saturday, August 24, 2019

MODERN JEWISH HISTORY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

MODERN JEWISH HISTORY - Essay Example As a result, the individuals are likely to be converted, marry or get married and get full recognition into the said community as the process reaches advanced stages. However, in the case of the Jews, there have been historical issues that have surrounded their assimilation because of the various injustices they had to face. In the light of this observation, this paper will examine the various issues that led Jews to assimilation in order to shield themselves from persecutions given their minority status historically. The paper will be two phased with the first section discussing the assimilation process in the east and west, the second part will look at the case of assimilation in Poland. Assimilation in the East and West One of the great influences of the Jewish community in these regions was the impact of religious bearing between Judaism and the other religions For instance, the inferior nature of the community that practices Judaism as compared to their Christian counterparts is assumed to be a fact. As a result, the people who may be living in other nations may not be considered to belong because of the difference in culture or some mutual obligations that bind the group together. On the other hand, the assimilated groups in other nations may tend to treat their Jewish status as an embarrassment and therefore a non issue in the process of integration. As many people accepted these stereotypes, there were continued calls for assimilation into Christianity since it provided a good opportunity of the development of personal goals. In effect, Christianity therefore remained the dominant religion in such regions. Moreover, the desire to assimilate and become â€Å"terminal Jews† was popular because of the younger generations who were vulnerable to stigma and exclusion in the society. Through this, being a Jew was becoming meaningless in the eastern and western societies. Anybody with that identity was considered an outsider and therefore the hastening o f the assimilation process for fear of being abandoned or even persecuted. This in effect created a condition where the Jews in the regions dominated by other religions conform and re-align their faith and integrate with the others. As a result, there came â€Å"liberal Judaism† that seemed to have done away with the strict requirements of the Jewish law including all the theological guidelines and other religious beliefs and practices. By arguing that inclusiveness is the main foundation of Judaism, those in support for assimilation therefore were inclined towards the ethics of "prophetic Judaism". The Jewish intellectuals stressed individual moral independence, rational conduct and inclusiveness. Consequently, this idea became popular and gave rise to a ‘Judeo-Christian ethic approach’ in most of the regions of the western nations. Christians were comfortable with this approach because they were trying to reconnect to their ethics that emerged from the propheti c teachings of biblical Judaism. They also wanted to claim the legitimacy of Christianity as the designated owner of the Judaism as practiced in the biblical Israel. On the other hand, the Jews supported this because they wanted to demonstrate that in terms of ethics, they were similar to Christians and hence were supportive of them. In America, as opposed to Europe, Jews were not bothered with having to fight for their basic civil and human rights. Jewish ethics as fought

Friday, August 23, 2019

The valid contract Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The valid contract - Case Study Example However, a point to be noticed in this context is that to be legally binding, the promise made by the party and its acceptance must be aimed at forming a legal relationship. Anything made out of natural relationship (or domestic arrangements) are assumed not to create any legally binding obligations. Nevertheless, the case -Parker Vs Clark [1960] NLR 286- demonstrates that although domestic arrangements are assumed not to create legally-binding obligations, in some cases this assumption may be overruled by the facts . obligations. Moreover, Irene made the offer without having any intention to avail consideration from Gina. The offer is made just out of natural relationship. Therefore, it is not possible for Gina to approach the court for justice and get the promised money from Irene. Though, Gina has made some promises after the promise by Irene, this does not amount to a promise, which is legally enforceable. In this context, the case Balfour v Balfour [1919] 2 KB 571 is worth notable as "it demonstrates the strong presumption that domestic agreements, even if framed in contractual terms, are not intended to create legal obligations" (Law Glossary, 2006). Usually, when an order is made by one party to another for the supply of certain goods for a consideration, it becomes a contract. Both parties are legally binding to the terms of the contract are obliged to perform their part. If any of them makes a default, the aggrieved party can claim compensation from the defaulted party as the transaction is legally enforceable. When one is making an offer to another on the strength of the offer made by a third party, and if the third party makes a default and it subsequently results in the non performance of the offer, the third party is no way affected by the default of the promissor. In the given case, though Irene has made a promise to pay Gina a sum of 15000 and subsequently defaulted to pay the sum, the offer (s) business or personal made by Gina will in no way affect Irene as the first offer itself is not a legally binding one. Therefore, it is not legally obligatory for Irene to pay the remaining amount to Kolumbie, the aromatherapy oil supplier. Is Gina liable to Jaymark Fitness for the 4,000 balance on her debt When an offer is made out of the strength of the offer of another and the subsequent default of the original offer, the second offer cannot be performed and will result in breach of contract. But, it is to be noticed that whether the original offer is legally binding or not. In the given case, the original offer is a domestic arrangement and it is out of the natural relationship between Irene and Gina. However, when Gina has placed an order for 10,000 worth goods and after the default by Irene, Gina could not keep the promise that the payment shall be paid later. Gina informed Jaymark that she could not pay the 10,000 owed but could manage 6,000 and that if Jaymark tried to sue her for more, she would declare herself bankrupt and Jaymark would get nothing at all. Jaymark reluctantly agreed to accept the 6,000 in full and final satisfaction of the debt. Therefore, Gina is not

Democracy (essay can be on Equality or Power as well) Essay

Democracy ( can be on Equality or Power as well) - Essay Example Who were some of the most powerful leaders in history? People such as Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar and Xenophon, and todays American presidents. These mens lives have lessons for us today but also in a way parallel the lives of some of the most significant business leaders of the 20th and 21st centuries. Business leaders and generals and political leaders all lead high stress lives. Many people depend on them for everything and their decisions have enormous impact. It is therefore very useful to understand what works and what doesnt. Indeed, what happened in the past is the best predictor of what will happen in the future. A limitation that seems apparent in this analysis is that while there are similarities between business and war they are not the exactly the same. Sam Walton is not Alexander the Great. If things go bad for Sam, he loses money (Burns 45). If things go bad for Alexander, he and his soldiers are killed and his country destroyed. There is an important difference. When Hank Greenberg was voted out of AIG by the board of directors because of some of the mistakes he made with management, his penalty wasnt exactly the same as Julius Caesars. Life and death are rarely at stake in the business world (although sometimes they are). Power is a complex thing. For me personally power and leadership means a number of things. Powerful leaders dont need to be bigger than life. They dont need to be historical figures. They are sometimes just people in your local community. Something that has had a big influence on me is the idea of integrity and leadership. I believe integrity is the most pressing leadership issue of today. To me it means having sound moral principles and being honest and upright. In our contemporary world it is clear we have a serious lack of these important principles. But it is not enough to say that it is important to have integrity—we must take steps to instil it where it is lacking. To begin

Thursday, August 22, 2019

State and federal Essay Example for Free

State and federal Essay How a society punishes their criminals can say a lot about the way the citizens live their lives. Here in the United States we would rather take better care of someone in prison for life than a person on the street who has never committed a crime in their life. The philosophy and practices has changed drastically in the last 30 years. Rehabilitation was the main focus for the beginning of the 20th century. This gave way to a new found focus on justice, and fairness in the 1970s. Crime control was the next practice of sentencing, this emphasized jail time as a way to reduce the crime in a community. During the 1980s-1990s this model of crime control was very popular. The emphasis on goals of the sentencing, and corrections policies, and practices can be characterized. Sentencing has four major goals that are normally attributed to it: deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, and retribution. Retribution is from the 21 centuries model of â€Å"just deserts.† The main idea is that if someone breaks the law they should be punished. The other three uses more emphasize on protecting the public. The way they go about is how they differ. Deterrence focuses on the burdensome aspect of a punishment. This makes the offender think about what he or she is, has, or is about to do. This is to make a rational thought that the chance of getting caught is too high, not worth the risk. The idea is to make the person (specific deterrence) who may commit the crime so afraid of the punishment, and detour others (general deterrence) from committing the same crime. Incapacitation is when a person is deprived the capacity to commit a crime due to the fact they are, well in prison. Next is rehabilitation. The goal here is to change the way an offender thinks, and acts so that they do not commit crimes any more. This is done by usually offering an education to an offender. When all of this is combined, and put to work it creates a large work load for the corrections departments across the United States. Though not one of these works best for every prison, city, or inmate, but when combined can be a useful tool. The corrections system takes a large blow depending on how a crime or offender is sentenced. With most jails, and prisons near, at, or over capacity they must take each sentence in to consideration. For retribution there can be very little impact on a large scale prison, but for a small town corrections department this can make an impact. When an offender is charged with a crime, and is sentenced with a form for retribution, community service for example. For every person that is sentenced in this way it takes more resources to complete the task for the corrections department. If more offenders were sentenced to probation or parole the impact on the corrections system would be much less. This would defeat the purpose of the system many times. The idea behind the sentence is to get the criminal off the streets, and out of the community. Rehabilitation is considered to be the only punishment that is a combination of the reduction of crime with the offender’s rights intact. Crime can be deterred by long prison terms, and capital punishment, rehabilitation will only work if the offender can re-enter the community or society. If this is not an option extreme punishments need not to be ruled out. If one is to favor a â€Å"right’s oriented rehabilitation,† this is to accept the criminal’s liability to receive punishment, but also assumes the right on his or her part to be able to return to society, and be a contributing member of a community. This idea is often referred to as â€Å"state-obligated rehabilitation.† This meaning that if the right of the state is to punish, they also must be able to educate their prisoners. The idea is that no more harm comes than was intended at the time of the sentence. One can go as far as to say that if the state or federal prison system does not provide a source of rehabilitation to the inmates it would be cruel and unusual punishment. If the goal is to rehabilitate the criminals, and one day have them back on the street as functioning members of a society that we want so badly to be safe, and secure then yes. Prison should be a harsh environment, but at the same time a place where one can gain a new found  appreciation for a hard work ethic or a basis education. Also along with this prison needs to be a place where an offender can look back, and be thankful for the time they spent their because of the education they received, but at the same time never want to return because it is such a horrible place. According to The Free Dictionary (2013), â€Å"Determinate Sentence – A sentence to confinement for a fixed or minimum period that is specified by statute.   Indeterminate Sentence – The prison term imposed after conviction for a crime which does not state a specific period of time or release date, but just a range of time, such as â€Å"five-to-ten years.† My personal opinion is that indeterminate sentencing is a more appropriate approach to sentencing. For one there are so many variables that can go into a case that if a cookie cutter approach is tried to be used there will be several things over looked, and then many things over emphasized. The idea for a punishment to be passed down that is fair to the individual not the crime. Though I believe that some crimes should have a determinate sentence to them with an option of adjustment depending of the situation, but for the most part if someone breaks that law, no matter who, what, why, where, or when they get the same sentence. An example According to OMally Law Office (2013), †A man convicted of sexual assault on his maid had his sentence reduced from 28 years to life, to 8 years to life in an Arapahoe County, Colorado court recently. This story was reported in a CBS Denver 4 News release. Homaida Al-Turki, a Saudi-Arabia citizen, was accused and convicted on 12 counts of sexual assault related to keeping his maid as a sex slave in his Aurora, Colorado home. The reduction in sentence was said to be ordered because Mr. Al-Turki, who was incarcerated at a Limon, Colorado facility for the past five years, displayed good behavior, and also due implications from a recent Colorado Supreme Court ruling in a case unrelated to Mr. Al-Turki. It is important to note that Mr. Al-Turki still faces an indeterminate sentence. Indeterminate sentencing in Colorado means that a defendant may be kept for  his entire life, regardless of his minimum sentence. So, the practice effect is that if the parole board desires to keep Mr. Al-Turki in the custody of the Colorado Department of Corrections forever, they can. In effect, the sentence reduction only impacts the minimum sentence this defendant must serve, not the maximum. Indeterminate sentences in Colorado only come into play with Colorado sex offenses. Whether it is Douglas County, Weld County, Larimer County or another Colorado County, indeterminate sentences are devastating.†

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Reflection on Child Observation Study

Reflection on Child Observation Study The purpose of this essay is to discuss an observation I undertook of an 18 month year old boy, whose mother was a friend of a friend who I had no prior knowledge about. Initially I explained the observation to the mother and a contract was soon drawn up and subsequently signed. It ensured that the study was completely confidential and the child’s name would be anonymised. I have used x to refer to the child. Firstly I am going to discuss some of the challenges I faced, how intrusive I felt initially and how I struggled not to interact. I will then discuss the benefits of child observations in helping me to overcome these challenges, for instance, the benefits of seminar groups and how the observation has been beneficial in developing my reflective skills. I will then discuss some factors I felt impacted on my observation and how these will be useful to me in future social work practice. For me one of the most challenging aspects I found with the child observation was feeling intrusive. Initially on my way to the house I felt very nervous and during the observation when x ran off to the kitchen to see his mother I felt very uneasy following him as I felt I was invading their privacy. Having read McMahon Farnfield (1994) I now know that this is a common anxiety for students who undertake child observations as many observers feel uncomfortable about intruding in to the privacy of someone’s home. However, having read Quitak (2004) I know that social workers often have to visit client’s homes and if they are too anxious to invade a client’s privacy they may miss out on information that is vitally important. For example, social workers can feel intimidated by parents and find it difficult focussing on the child (Blom-Cooper et al, 1985). Social work will often involve infringing on a client’s privacy (Trowell and Miles, 1991). Therefore it is vital social workers have the confidence to deal with their uncomfortable feelings of intruding in order for them to be effective in their role (Quitak, 2004). I felt the seminar groups were beneficial in helping me to overcome my fear of intruding because they felt like a safe space in which I could discuss my anxieties. McKinnon commented that the seminar group provides a â€Å"safe container† (2009: 90). The seminar creates a safe environment where students can share and discuss any uncomfortable feelings and experiences that they came across during the observation (Ruch, 2007). The term containment was developed by Bion (1962) who believed that therapeutic relationships, such as groups can act as containers for uncontrollable feelings (Ruch, 2007). In the same way a mother or carer contain the painful feelings of a child and return them in a way the child can understand in an attempt to make the child feel safe (Mckenzie Beecraft, 2004). The seminar also acts as a container, by discussing my feelings and anxieties about intruding on somebody’s home it helped me to overcome the anxiety of feeling intrusive which was distra cting me from observing properly. As I continued to visit the home for following visits, I subsequently developed my confidence in visiting the home and not feel quite so intrusive. In addition, one of the biggest challenges I faced was my desire to intervene. Ruch (2009) believed that attempting to not interact with a child is arguably one of the most challenging elements of the child observation. I always felt cruel because at times I had to completely ignore the child and this felt strange and unnatural for me. Tanner Turney (2000) and Le Riche (2006) commented that not interacting can feel strange and uncomfortable for observers because it is unnatural and goes against traditional customs. However, not interacting can be beneficial because it creates space to reflect on and explore my feelings (Tanner Turney, 2000; Trowell and Miles, 2004). For example, I found myself in disbelief because x refused to eat the peas on his plate and x’s mother although attempting once to make them eat them, gave up quite quickly. This could be because this took me back to when I was a young child when my parents always made me eat my vegetables; otherwise I wasnâ€⠄¢t allowed to leave the table. I was surprised at how strong and how personal my reaction was. Having read Fawcett (1996), however I realised that as children we all grow up with certain rules our parents make us obey and these may still reside with us when we are older and can have a major influence on our attitudes (Fawcett, 1996). In my case I found myself judging x’s mother because she didn’t view eating vegetables as important. Having read McMahnon Farnfield , they argued â€Å"It takes emotional effort for students to see that what is different is not necessarily wrong† (2004: 240). Therefore, I realised that just because x’s mother is doing things in a different way and I view my family’s experience as the ‘correct’ way, this does not mean what she is doing is wrong. Fawcett (1996) and Trowell Miles (2004) argued that it is acceptable for students to have these attitudes and preconceptions provided that students identify these and question them through reflection. Therefore, one of the benefits of the child observation f or me was significantly developing the ability to reflect and develop self-awareness. These are useful skills for me as a student social worker because by allowing time to reflect I can begin to recognise and question how my emotions and preconceptions may be affecting my judgement or an assessment of a family or individual and can incorporate this before deciding the next steps to help them (Turney,2008; Mckinnon, 2009). One of the most significant learning points from the child observation for me was when I first met the family, one of the first things x’s mother did was explain the bruise on x’s face and how he was always falling over. Despite my best efforts to ensure the mother that it was purely an observation, I believed she still felt that she was being judged as a mother and felt anxious about being observed. At the time I did not question this because I was very anxious myself, it was only later when I was writing up my notes that I realised how significant this was. Having experienced this, it made me aware of the power imbalances that existed between the observer and the observed. Turney argues that it could be slightly anxious and uncomfortable for those being observed because they are aware of â€Å"the power of the gaze, the power of the looker in relation to the â€Å"looked at†Ã¢â‚¬  (2008: 124). Therefore because x’s mother knew I was observing her she p erhaps felt vulnerable and anxious because she viewed me as being in a more powerful position than her. This could explain why she defended her son’s bruise so early on in the observation. During a normal assessment between a social worker and a client these feelings are intensified. Therefore, this has taught me the importance of remembering that as a social worker I can be intimidating to the client because I am perceived as the more powerful person. As a next step, I must learn the most effective methods and techniques to try and minimise the imbalance of power between myself and the service user. For me the most meaningful aspect of the child observation was when I attempted to explain to x that he was being observed. Despite him being only 18 months old and although I did not feel he understood me due to his age, for me this demonstrated how powerless children are. Young children in particular are totally dependent on adults for their safety and well-being, by not telling the child they were being observed I felt that this was reinforcing their invisibility and undermining their views and opinions. Ruch (2009) commented that some observers believed it was oppressive by not introducing themselves to their child and this is how I felt because by not asking a child for their consent, arguably we are not valuing what they have to say. For example, reports in to the death of children such as Victoria Climbre and Jasmine Beckford, reveal how children were not effectively â€Å"seen and heard† (Fawcett, 1996:18). In addition, inquiries often revealed that there was limited u nderstanding of the child’s world and everyday activities were inadequately described because adult’s interpretations were valued over children’s (Mckinnon, 2009; King, 2002). Turney (2008) believes that the child observation can help to develop the skills of ensuring excluded groups such as children are completely focussed on and is crucial in evaluating whether a vulnerable child is safe or not. Fawcett (1996) argued that observation allows the chance for a child’s voices, stories and opinions to be taken seriously and valued. Therefore, I believe the child observation has helped me to focus on the child, observe what they do and listen to what they say to ensure that they are not invisible. I feel I have significantly improved my understanding of the powerlessness of children which will help me to improve and adapt my communication skills with children. To conclude, for me one of the biggest challenges of the child observation was initially feeling intrusive, however the seminar acted as a â€Å"safe container†, where I could discuss and overcome my anxieties in a safe environment. Subsequently on following visits I found these anxieties soon disappeared. In addition, I found not interacting very challenging, but soon learnt how valuable this was because it gave me an opportunity to reflect and explore my feelings. Recognising and questioning how our values and attitudes may be affecting my judgement or an assessment of a family is a valuable skill in social work and this can be taken in to account when deciding the best help for a family. The child observation has been an important reminder that as a social worker I can appear more powerful and even intimidating to the client, as well as the powerlessness of children. Therefore developing techniques to try and minimise these power imbalances is a crucial next step.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Importance Of Diversity In Our Society Sociology Essay

Importance Of Diversity In Our Society Sociology Essay This essay will reflect the importance of diversity in the society. The definition of diversity will be given. Positive and negative aspects of diversity will be discussed. The issues of diversity like; gender, race, class, homogeneity and heterogeneity will also be discussed in this essay. Human beings have a basic difference which differentiates people into various classes in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, class and so on. These differences cause a lot of misunderstanding, discrimination and prejudice among people of different divisions. Diversity, on the other hand helps people to identify these differences, understand, respect and embrace this differences.Therefore, diversity can be defined as the ability to recognise individual differences and the ability to respect and accept these differences without discriminating it. Diversity consists of two dimensions. These are the primary and secondary dimensions. This is mostly represented with a wheel that contains the inner and outer wheel. The primary dimensions are six areas which are considered to be dimensions of diversity.These areas are; age, race, gender, ethnicity physical abilities and qualities, and sexual orientation. All these are represented by the inner wheel. These are perceived to be the most common and prevailing ways of different perception of individuals in looking at differences between people. The outer wheel contains areas that are placed under the secondary dimensions of diversity. These are things or elements that can be changed or acquired. As far as diversity is concerened,it is not only important to study diversity but it also has a major problem when dealing with the topic. According to Fry et al, one of the problem people encounter when dealing with the topic diversity, is stereotyping.(2004:156).Stereotyping is an element of p rejudice, which can be said to be placing people on the basis of one particular area of difference. We must look beyond the obvious elements of difference says stoner et al (2004:157) in other to understand each persons individuality. As they say, although the topic of diversity may be studied in discrete sections, people do not fit into easy, simplistic categories. They are quite complex (2004:157-8).Studying diversity is very important because it helps to understand various issues that causes discrimination. These issues are; race, gender, class, homogeneity and heterogeneity. These issues will be discussed individually. Firstly, the issue of homogeneity and heterogeneity. Homogeneity is when a group of people have and share similar values, similar ideas, and similar ways of living and so on. This is called a homogeneous society. All human beings are homogeneous in one way or the other. It does not matter where you come from or your skin colour. Individuals share some common behaviour no matter how culturally different people are. There are different types of homogeneous society some of which are ethnically that is the Japanese society, religiously the Arab, culturally the Indians. So many researchers concluded that the most prominent one is ethnically, where people have similar culture and complexion and facial features,(Andromida ,n.d).Homogeneity has its advantages such as, homogeneous societies do not have the problem of language barrier, which sometimes causes threats to the unity of the society. Diversity of religious and ethnic groups can take up a wrong path, thereby causing misunderstanding in the society which may result to conflict. For example, after the incident of the 911, so many Indians, Pakistanis and Arabs were maltreated in the US, reasons due to the fact that there is lack of religious homogeneity. In the case of politics, the homogeneous society has more advantage. This is because the government decision making can be more powerful because the majority people have the same point of view. (Andromida , n.d.). But then, it also has disadvantages.The main problem with homogeneous society is as history stated that the homogeneity of a country has been endangered and broken many times and it is not possible to maintain the homogeneousness of a society.For instance,during the period of 5300 and 1940 B.C,the Sumerian used to live in present day Iraq, although they were politically,socially and agriculturally more advanced,they suffered in the hands of the Akkadians because they lacked and did not even think of developing their military power. possibly, homogeneity encourages people to be unaware of the development of the rest of the world. The leaders in a homogeneous society do not like accepting changes which leads to the down fall of the whole society. Example is Japan, during the time of shogun who believed in the homogeneity of their society, (Andromida , n.d.) .Yet studying homogeneity in diversity is very important. This is because it reminds people about the basic qualities individuals share no mater your race or gender or religion.Perherps,if people are being reminded about homogeineity,the rate of discrimination may reduce and people would start embracing and accepting others differences. While heterogeneity is the exact opposite of Homogeneity. Heterogeneity is when people are dissimilar, that is, they have different backgrounds, different values, different needs and interest. When people with these features live in the same society, it is called a heterogeneous society. Todays world is becoming more of heterogeneous society. This is because people try to adopt other peoples culture and the movement of people from one place to another has increased. The advantages of a heterogeneous society is the society have the ability to move together with the rest of the world. Heterogeneous societies understand the differences in individuals more and faster. A heterogeneous society has the tendency to live longer because more countries and societies all over the world are becoming more and more heterogeneous. There are certain disadvantages that hinders heterogeneity, such as; language barrier which causes so many problems that can lead to the crashing of that society. People w ho have different languages and are of different religious background tend to see their own ethnic or religion or language as superior than the others, this may lead to conflict between the different groups. The most dominant group in a heterogeneous society may try to oppress other groups. Decision making will also be slow or even be a great problem because the leaders themselves are from different backgrounds so they may have different point of views which will make them disagree with each other there by resulting into a great misunderstanding. The issue of heterogeneity is important in diversity because people have to be aware of the differences between individuals in other to enable them accept others. So that people will know and understand that in spite of all the differences, there are also similarities that human beings share. The next issue is the issue of class. Carl Max defined class as an antagonistic relationship that is always relative to another group based on exploitation and control. Social class is a group of people that have comparable social and economic status. Classification of people based on what you have, that is economic capital the quantity of your wealth, who you know which is the social capital and what you know the cultural capital. Class does not only affect people economically but it also affects people emotionally. Class may be said to be culture.(Class Action , 2004).Class can be changed during a persons life time, that is some people are born and grew into a class but they live as adults in another, while some immigrants change their class from their original country to their new country. This shows that class operates along a range or hierarchy. The stratification of class is based on the upper class, these are the very wealthy and powerful people, The middle class who are the p rofessionals and other high earning workers then the lower class who are classified to be people who only have low income and other resources. Classism is a way of oppressing people according to their class, wages or income. There are different levels of oppression which are; macro which happens due to economic, social, political and cultural institutions.However, as bad as classifying people according to their economic status looks, it has its benefits. These benefits are; it gave rise for more fluid structures in the western society, classification of people in a society makes way for others in that society. Exploitation of people is also present. The negative effects of classifying people is that it has been misunderstood which brought about classism. This makes individuals to be oppressed in a society either directly or indirectly. This results to emotional and physical damage. It is considered important to address the issue of class in diversity. This is because when the issues are being addressed, people will be able to understand that social class does not mean classism. And individuals will be able to understand the reasons behind classifying people under social class are not to discriminate or practice classism. Furthermore, the issue of Race. Race is considered the group of people who share the same physical and biological factors. It can be skin colour facial features, religion, culture and ethnic group.Nturally; all human beings are genetically homogeneous. So many people do not view race to be a source of belonging rather, a cause to discriminate. This introduces racism which is the thought of one ethnic group or race to be superior to others, thereby making them to discriminate and oppress people who are not from their own race. It is also an institution that discriminate people against their physical and cultural groups. Race is important because it makes an individual to feel a sense of belonging to a particular group. It makes people know that they are not the only ones who look different or sound different to the rest of the world. It also has disadvantages which are; it creates a way for people to discriminate and oppress individuals who are from certain or different race from thei r own. It makes some people feel superior to others there by making those individuals fell inferior and less important in the society. The issue of racism should be addressed in diversity in other to make people understand that race does not mean any group is superior or inferior to others. It creates awareness to people that no matter the difference in individuals, humanbeings still share basic needs as nature requires them to. It will also make them understand that it is wrong to discriminate and feel threatened by other race. It may make individuals to accept people for who they are. Lastly, the issue of gender. These are the socially constructed roles, behaviour, activities and attributes that society considers male and female to attain. These roles are being fixed by the society while some by nature. This determines what role individuals should play. Gender in some society is determined physically. It is important for people to know their gender roles in other for them to know what the society requires of them to do. It is also important for people to know their gender in other to play the right role so as not confuse their children. This is because in so many cases of single mothers or and fathers, their children grow up to play the wrong role in the society. Gender also consists of disadvantages. This is because people misuse certain gender to oppress. They have the believe that a certain gender is inferior to the other. For instance, the male gender consider the female gender to be inferior to them there by oppressing them. India is a very good example to ci te gender discrimination. In India, the male gender make the female gender to the hard work that they are suppose to do. This is because they fell they are inferior to them. This issue gender is of great importance to be discussed in diversity, to let individuals know that people can choose their own gender roles. And gender does not mean one group is superior to the other. Diversity can be used to correct the how people view gender. Some societies that discriminates the female gander can be corrected through diversity. All the five issues that were discussed above in this essay revolve around diversity. They are issues that the society misunderstand their importance what they stand for thereby making them to discriminate, operess and prejudice people. These issues are important to be discussed in diversity in other to correct the ills in the society.Therefore, diversity is of great importance because it determines the future state of the society if it is ignored and not cared for. So many people suffer due to these issues but diversity can stop these sufferings. With diversity, people will learn to accept and understand individuals there by reducing the rate of misunderstanding, conflict.prejudice and discrimination. Conclusively, the definition of diversity was given in the essay; the issues of diversity were listed and explained. The positive and negative aspects or effects of these issues was given and explained. And how they are of importance to be addressed in the society. The importance of diversity in the society has also been pointed put and explained in this essay.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Advertisements - The F-150 SuperCrew Pickup :: Adverts, Compare and Contrast, Analysis

The target audience throughout the 129-year history of Popular Science magazine has traditionally been working age males. The advertisements within the magazine reflect the audience in whom they are attempting to reach. From new technological gadgets to old-fashioned tools, the advertisers know what will be attractive to the reader, and to the reader’s wallet. Of these advertisers, the most popular by far have been those from the automotive industry. The Ford Motor Company has chosen to strategically advertise within the pages of this magazine on numerous occasions and with various ads that were meant to lure new customers into buying Ford vehicles. It is interesting to notice that the styles of these advertisements are schemed with just the right qualities to attract as many male consumers as possible. The January, 2001 issue of Popular Science depicts a classic, two-page advertisement from the Ford Motor Company displaying its new F-150 SuperCrew pickup truck. From the colors of the ad, to the write-up found on the pages, it is very clear that the purpose was to attract males by using some of advertising’s basic appeals. The advertisement appeals to men by providing an outlet for their need for affiliation, the need to aggress, and the need to dominate. One of the most common appeals toward men in advertising is concerning the need for affiliation among men. This advertisement depicts a photograph of six hard-working men performing various duties – all around a brand new Ford truck. Above this photograph is another picturing six empty styrofoam cups of coffee. These subtle innuendoes are intended to support one of the major themes of the ad – that this particular truck provides seating for six. The way the cups are pictured, lying atop of one another supports the idea that many men hold that friendship and comradeship is greatly important to the success of their lives. Another detail supporting this idea is the fact that the men in the picture are dressed primarily the same. They all wear dark jeans, dark work shoes, and white tee shirts. This gives an impression of uniformity, and of the need for affiliation with friends and co-workers. The advertisement inconspicuously displays a sense of belonging – if the re ader decides to buy a new Ford truck! The need to aggress is depicted by quite a few aspects of this ad. First of all, the strong lettering at the tops of both pages of this advertisement depict a sort of cynicism toward mainstream thinking – a sort of â€Å"go against the flow† mentality.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Color Imagery in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight :: essays papers

Color Imagery in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Sir Gawain And The Green Knight I believe that the color imagery in Sir Gawain And The Green Knight represents nature, as a force that man has little control over. This is evident during the journey of Sir Gawain, and later, his shame in front of King Arthur's court. Nature does as it will in ways that can not be controlled by man. The best they can do is to acknowledge the fact that it is happening. They had no control whatsoever, and therefore, were subject to it's, at times, ferocity. This is similar to the ferocity displayed by the Green Knight. The Green Knight worked under his own set of rules, and like a growing tree, man had, and still has, no control over when the tree would leaf or bloom, or how long it's branches would grow. The Green Knight, like nature, has to be understood before it can be dealt with, and even then, you are not guaranteed success. You need to know how he thinks, and play your cards right, in order to come out of the fight successfully. At first Sir Gawain was on the right path, but throughout his journey, he became sidetracked and due to that, he brought shame unto himself, and to the court of King Arthur. The story begins with a New Year's feast at Arthur's court in Camelot. All the knights and ladies gather to exchange gifts, and to eat and be merry. Everyone is laughing and having a good time, while Arthur amuses them with stories of courageous knights. The first course is served, and the guests are about to eat, when a knight, dressed totally in green, rides into the dining hall. The knight is very large, well-dressed, and imposing. It seems that he has come in peace, due to the absence of his armor and shield. The Green Knight's connection to nature is emphasized when he is presented holding a "holly bob...That is goodliest in green when groves are bare"(206-7). His closeness to nature is also apparent when the color of the knight is described as "green as the grass"(235). The Green Knight has a challenge, and he demands to speak to the head of the court. King Arthur, being the head of the court, answers the call of the Green Knight. The Green Knight proceeds to tell Arthur that it is his court who are the best and most noble knights in the land, and he has come here with a challenge.

Theseus Or Hercules? :: essays research papers

Theseus or Hercules? Theseus is most worthy of emulation. He was a great hero in Athens. "Theseus was, of course bravest of the brave as all heroes are, but unlike the other heroes he was as compassionate as he was brave." (p. 159). Theseus also was a man of bravery, intellect and bodily strength. Hercules on the other hand was what all Greece except Athens most admired. He was very strong but wasn't too smart. Hercules never thought of the consequences that his actions would bring about before he followed through with them. First, Theseus was very strong. He fought many terrible horrendous monsters such as the Minotaur, "..a monster, half bull, half human.." (p.151), and went on many great ventures such as the Quest for the Golden Fleece. Theseus showed his great strength in adventures such as the one with the Minotaur. Hercules was also involved in many great adventures in which his great strength was shown. Hercules was much stronger than Theseus, but Theseus made up for this small loss in other ways. Second, Theseus was very smart. Because of his great intellect the Athenians, people who valued thought and ideas, chose him and not Hercules as their hero. Theseus escaped from the Labyrinth and killed the Minotaur. Neither of these tasks were easy and required someone with aptitude unlike Hercules. Theseus always thought things through and made good decisions. Hercules' foolishness was shown on many occasions such as when he killed his family and his music teacher. Theseus' intellect is one very valuable quality which makes him more worthy of emulation. Third, Theseus was very brave. In fact he went on so many great excursions that a saying grew up in Athens "Nothing without Theseus!" (p. 149). When it was time for Theseus to seek his father he would not go by water " But Theseus refused to go by water because the voyage was safe and easy." (p. 149). Theseus insisted to take the way by land. His idea was to become a hero as quickly as possible, and he accomplished his goal by ridding the land of all the banns to travelers on his way to find his father. Theseus had many other adventures. He was on the Argo, in the Caledonian hunt, as well as many others. Hercules also had many adventures but his were often the result of his own

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Italian Immigration vs Irish Immigration

This paper will contrast the two dominant populations of immigrants to the United States in the 19th and early 20th century. These two groups of immigrants were from Italy and Ireland. The reasons both of these groups immigrated to the United States are very similar, but their cultures were vastly different, and the marks they left on our society are still felt to this day. At the beginning of the 19th century the dominant industry of Ireland was agriculture. Large areas of the country were under the control of landowners living in England. Much of this land was rented to small farmers who, because of a lack of capital, farmed with antiquated implements and used outdated methods. The land was unable to sustain the population and many began to look for new lands to live. In 1816 around 6,000 Irish people sailed for America. Within two years this figure had doubled. Early arrivals were recruited to build canals and do other labor intensive jobs. In 1818 over 3,000 Irish laborers were employed building the Erie Canal. By 1826 around 5,000 were working on four separate canal projects. The peak of Irish immigration occurred in the 1840s, when half of all immigrants to the United States came from Ireland. Ireland had the highest population density in all of Europe during this time period, but the country was unable to sustain its citizens. This resulted in widespread starvation and difficult living conditions, and many Irish immigrants chose to leave their homeland and make their way in America. In 1850 there were 960,000 people in the United States that had emigrated from Ireland. The vast majority lived in New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Illinois, Ohio and New Jersey. The Irish Immigrant Society tried to persuade immigrants to move to other parts of the United States, but the vast majority were very poor, and had no money for transportation or to buy land. They therefore tended to settle close to their port of entry into the United States. One of the largest factors in the large numbers of Irish Immigrants was a serious disease affecting Irish potatoes, which ruined about 75% of the country's crop. This was a major disaster because over four million people in Ireland depended on the potato as their main food. The disease returned in 1846 and over the next year an estimated 350,000 people died of starvation and an outbreak of typhus also decimated the population. Despite good potato crops over the next four years, people continued to die from rampant diseases, and in 1851 the Census Commissioners estimated that nearly a million people had died during the Irish food crisis. The Irish food shortage stimulated a desire to immigrate. By the end of 1854 nearly two million people (about a quarter of the population) had immigrated to the United States. Another major factor for mass immigration was the political situation under British rule. Many bad political decisions made by the British, affected the quality of life of the Irish citizens and contributed to the massive disease outbreaks and crop failures. The dream of many Irishmen was the chance to own their own land. Freedom and a democratic government that promised a voice in their government also had a romantic appeal to the hordes of Irish Immigrants. Religious freedom was another important factor. Of course it was really tough for new Irish immigrants in the US, but they proved themselves to be a hardy and resilient group of people. Thousands of Irish laborers worked on building the railroads in the United States. Some were able to save enough money to buy land and establish themselves as farmers along the routes they had helped to develop. This was especially true of Illinois and by 1860 there were 87,000 Irish people living in this state. Other Irish immigrants became coalminers in Pennsylvania. Working conditions in the mines were terrible with no safety requirements, no official inspections and no proper ventilation. When workers were mistreated for trade union activity, they formed a secret society called the Molly Maguires. Named after an anti-landlord organization in Ireland, the group attempted to frighten mine-owners and their supporters. The group was not broken-up until 1875. The Irish tended to support the Democratic Party rather than the Republican Party. They had little sympathy for slaves as they feared that if they were given their freedom they would move north and threaten the jobs being done by Irish immigrants. However, on the outbreak of the Civil War general an estimated 170,000 men born in Ireland joined the Union Army, whereas only 40,000 were in the Confederate Army. One Irish immigrant, Thomas Meagher, became a highly successful general in the war. Before 1870, there were few Italian immigrants in the United States. Italy was one of the most populated countries in Europe and many began to consider the possibility of leaving Italy to escape low wages, high taxes and little opportunity to better themselves. Most of these immigrants were uneducated and from rural communities. From 1890 to 1900, around 650,000 Italian immigrants arrived in the United States, of whom two-thirds were men. Most planned to return to Italy once they had built up some savings, but many realized the opportunities that existed in their new country and sent for their families to join them. The earliest Italian immigrants to the United States were from Northern Italy, who became prominent as fruit merchants in New York and wine growers in California. Later, more and more immigrants came from Southern Italy and the communities and institutions they formed reflected the region's of Italy they came from. The main push factor for Italians was poor economic opportunities in Italy during this period, particularly in the southern regions, and pull factor of easily obtainable jobs in the United States. Italians settled in cities and often dominated specific neighborhoods, called â€Å"Little Italys†, where they could cooperate with one another and find favorite foods. Most arrived with little cash or education since most had been peasant farmers in Italy. They lacked craft skills, and therefore generally performed manual labor. With a strong interest in food, they became fruit peddlers and gardeners, and opened neighborhood groceries and restaurants that catered to fellow Italians. Most Italians found unskilled work in America's cities. There were large colonies in New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Baltimore and Detroit. From 1900 to 1910 over 2,100,000 arrived. Of these, around 40% eventually returned to Italy. Willing to work long hours on low wages, the Italians now began to rival the Irish for much of the unskilled work available in industrial areas. This sometimes led to hostilities breaking out between the two groups of workers. Italian neighborhoods were typically older areas with overcrowded houses and poor sanitation. Tuberculosis was very common. Italian immigration peaked from 1900 until 1914. In the American South, Italian immigrants met hostility and violence, sometimes even becoming the victims of violent crimes from other immigrant populations who resented the vast numbers of them invading their communities and taking jobs and resources away. For Italians, like other immigrant groups, politics, entertainment, sports, crime, and especially small business served as ladders for upward mobility. Italian American politicians, however, were hindered by a lack of ethnic organization. Italian Americans achieved notable success in both classical and popular music. Italian Americans were particularly successful in areas that did not require extensive formal education such as sales and small business ownership. In conclusion, The United States has greatly benefited from the many contributions of both Irish and Italian Immigrants. They have been instrumental in helping to build the infrastructure of the United States during the 19th and 20th century, and both of their cultures have been woven into the basic lifestyles that most of us enjoy today. Reference www.latinamericanstudies.org/italian-immigrants.htm

Friday, August 16, 2019

Importance of Management and Leadership for an Organization Essay

â€Å"Both management and leadership are needed to make teams and organisations successful. Trying to decide which is more important is like trying to decide whether the right or left wing is more important to an airplane’s flight. I’ll take both please!† (Clemmer, 2005, as cited in McLean, 2005, p.16). The aim of this essay is to answer the age old question as to whether management or leadership is more important to an organisation. Organisations, ranging from professional to social, have been in existence for centuries and the sole purpose of any of these organisations is to grow and succeed. Thus, it is without a doubt that any organisation would accomplish much without a source of management or leadership. Even though it is evident that both management and leadership are both fundamental to a successful organisation, a distinction between the two should be made; although they are both similar in definition and function they do differ in importance in and effe ct on organisations. It is contended that the implementation of good management has a greater benefit, and therefore has more importance, to an organisation than leadership because: leading is considered as an element of the management function; to manage an organisation is to sustain it whereas to lead is to direct it but if there is no management, there is no entity, which leaves nothing for leaders to lead; leadership is focused on the management of people but an organisation is made up of more than just people; and also the value of leadership depends deeply on the structure and size of the organisation in question. The term ‘good’ is often used to describe something of quality and skill; thus, good management simply means management that is of the highest quality and is effective in producing the greatest results for an organisation: â€Å"Excellent results stem from a combination of skilled management, strategic thought and a good dose of general common sense† (Honig, 1999, as c ited in Samson & Daft, 2009, p.14). Every workplace organisation, whether large or small, has a manager or person in charge; whether the appointed person is able to implement good management depends on their skill and capability. Management is the major task of any manager – it involves the use of authority to coordinate and supervise the activities of others and to ensure that tasks are being completed in an effective and efficient manner. More importantly, managers must implement the four key elements of management: planning, organising, leading and controlling in order to attain organisational goals (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Sharma, 2008). Organisational goals, whether they are sales targets or technological developments, are put in place by managers to set out the purpose and scope of an entity. Without such goals an organisation would cease to exist as there would be no direction to grow or move forward. The process of setting goals and deciding how to achieve them is the planning aspect of the management f unction (Bartol et al., 2008). If effective management is employed, there is a greater likelihood of managers establishing better organisational goals and contingency plans to ensure the future and success of the organisation; because it will not only be goal directed but will also be prepared for unforeseen circumstances that may arise, enabling them to react effectively and efficiently (Samson & Daft, 2009). Good management also assists in the successful implementation of action plans to achieve such organisational goals by organising, allocating, arranging and regulating activities and resources within the workplace (Bartol et al., 2008). Leading and managing are terms often used interchangeably because leading is described as a core activity of any manager (McLean, 2005). Leadership involves managers using influence to motivate employees to engage in plans that work towards achieving organisational goals (Bartol et al., 2008; Samson & Daft, 2009). This suggests that leadership is intertwined within the task of management. So if good management practices are in place in an organisation, leadership is expected to follow in existence. However, the mistake should not be made to describe leadership and management as the same thing – â€Å"leadership is an element of management but is not the same thing† (Lyson cited in Robinson, 1999, p.20). To say that leading and managing is the same would be to ultimately say planning and managing is the same thing; nevertheless, planning is only a function of management, as is leading. Therefore, if an organisation were given a choice between employing either a good manager or a good leader, the good manager would be the safer bet because it would be expected that a good manager encompasses good leadership. Furthermore, the importance of and need for management in a workplace is supported by the idea that organisations are established to succeed and innovate and such is not possib le without the planning and setting of organisational goals and the attainment of these goals by organising, leading and controlling. Once good management is in practice, the four key functions, including leadership, are sure to be carried out effectively and efficiently. The profitability of an organisation is not a result of good management on its own; however, management is a major contributing factor. Every organisation is goal directed, and as ascribed earlier, management is the attainment of organisational goals with the use of planning, organising, leading and controlling (Bartol et al., 2008). The organisational goals act as an entity’s reason for existence, it strives to achieve these goals in order to grow and accomplish. Therefore it can be concluded that the focus of any organisation is to grow and move forward rather than to remain stationary and unproductive and thus there is an assumption that the life of the entity will be on going. The survival of an organisation depends on the ability of the manager to sustain it by utilizing the effective skills of good management. The manager is responsible for making informed decisions about the welfare of the organisation along with the collective resources owned. These decisions aim to not only achieve goals but to sustain and up hold the organisation to ensure its survival in today’s dynamic environment. Thus there is emphasis on an organisation to have good management in order for the entity to survive, which also acts to highlight the importance of effective management. On the other hand, leadership is implemented as the principle dynamic force to guide and motivate subordinates to attain organisational objectives (Burns, 1978, as cited in Shamas & Ofori, 2008) and ultimately bring change to an organisation as more goals are satisfied. If effective leadership is exercised within an organisation, innovation, change and transformation are easily attainable (Bartol et al., 2008). Alternatively, Slap (2010) asserts that although leadership profits and adds value to an organisation by way of innovation, it is not the purpose of introducing leadership. Rather, leadership is used as a tool to share and express important values and experiences to employees in an attempt to bring about an improved change in the workplace environment and in the attitudes held by employees. Leadership in this sense allows leaders to be more easily respected upon employees because they feel more connected with the leader, which also gives the leader greater influence to motivate and encourage hard work. Nevertheless, whichever way leadership is regarded the end result remains the same: innovation of an organisation by way of providing direction to accomplish objectives (Bass, 1990, as cited in Shamas & Ofori, 2008). â€Å"A leader innovates; a manager maintains† (Hollingsworth, as cited in Robinson, 1999, p.20); without effective management to keep the organisation alive it is likely to fail, and consequently leaders will be left taskless – there will be no goals left to achieve, no employees left to motivate and ultimately no organisation left to innovate. This strongly recognises the importance of good management and the added advantage it brings to an organisation; without good management, good leadership will be ineffective and futile. On the contrary, leadership is often considered as a much more pleasant concept in comparison to that of management: â€Å"leaders are seen as charismatic and often are admired and held in high esteem, managers frequently are thought of as the organization’s taskmasters with a whip in one hand and a bullhorn for screaming out orders in the other hand† (Kotterman, 2006, p. 13). Zaleznik (1977) and Burns (1978), as cited in Nienaber ( 2010), portray management as â€Å"mundane, uninspiring and tactical by nature† and in addition, asserting that management alone cannot guarantee the success of an organisation. Consequently, it has been argued that leadership should be favoured at the expense of management in a successful organisation (Spurgeon & Cragg, 2007, as cited in Nienaber, 2010). One of the most important aspects of leadership is the leaders’ followers (Bennis, 1989, as cited in Shamas & Ofori, 2008). Iscoe (2005, as cited in McLean, 2005) argues that people would rather follow a leader than a manger, if given the option; this is not surprising as leaders tend to focus more on the people rather than any other aspect of the organisation because in order for a leader to effectively influence and lead others they must work to gain the trust and respect of their followers. Thus, there are various positive reasons as to why leaders are commended over managers among the people, some of which are highlighted in Maccoby (2000), as cited in Shamas & Ofori (2008)., p.63: â€Å"hope of success, trust in the leader, excitement about a project or mission, or the opportunity to stretch on eself to the limit†. Unlike management, leadership is not an assigned role or title placed on someone. The task of managing a corporation is specific to the teams of managers who are formally appointed the position whereas leaders can stem from any sector of an organisation. Therefore, managers are associated with formal authority (McLean, 2005) which means people secondary to them in the organisational hierarchy may view managers as intimidating and unapproachable which further emphasises why leaders are more favourable in an organisation. Yet in reality, success isn’t easily achievable and so in order to attain it, compromise must occur. An organisation cannot survive on leadership alone, because although a leader may possess few managerial qualities, they are unable to satisfy all the tasks of a manager. Nevertheless, as every workplace organisation involves employees, it is evident that leadership is a fundamental aspect of any entity because leaders are responsible for managing the people. However, organisations are about more than just the workers, which illustrates the prevailing importance of managers to control all the remaining aspects of an organisation such as goals, plans, assets and resources. As previously mentioned, every organisation involves employees. The McDonalds restaurant is the largest fast food chain in the world, operating over 30,000 franchises in over 100 countries worldwide. It was revealed in the 2010 McDonalds annual report that the organisation employs over 1.7 million workers from all age groups across their stores. In enormous corporations such as McDonalds, with such a vast number of employees, it is expected that both leaders and managers are equally essential in running the organisation because there is an equally enormous number of duties to be satisfied. However, in contrast, a small, family-owned, local milk bar may only have, at most, three employees. Clearly leadership is not as important in an organisation of three people in comparison to that of one with over one million people, simply because such a minute organisation does not require such a deep extent of leadership. However, it is not to say that the manager of the milk bar should not possess leadership qualities because even though there are very few employees, motivation and communication of direction must still take place (Nienaber, 2010) in order for the business to thrive. Although both management and leadership are both important functions of an organisation, a number of moderating factors determine the effectiveness and importance of leadership including size of the organisation (Fiedler, 1967; Gardner et al., 2005, as cited in Shamas and Ofori, 2008) whereas, regardless of size or type, every organisation needs a person in charge. In other words, management is important and is needed in every organisation but the extent to which leadership is needed varies among different organisations. Conclusively, although leadership and management are functions that must be applied to any successful organisation, effective management has prevailing importance. Theoretically, management is defined as the attainment of organisational goals through planning, organising, leading and controlling (Bartol et al., 2008). Thus it is clear that leadership is encompassed in the task of management so if a manager can perform their task effectively, leadership is likely to follow. However the reverse is not true, as to lead is to influence, direct and motivate others to achieve goals, not to control so management is not a facet of leadership. Management is often considered as a control mechanism in an organisation which some tend to find intimidating and off putting which is why leadership is usually the preferred, softer option (Kotterman, 2006). However, the focus of leaders is often on the people but people are obviously just one aspect of an organisation which is why managers are more important because there are so many other features of an organisation to be controlled. By influencing people to complete tasks effectively and efficiently, leaders bring about change and innovation in an organisation. However, without management acting to sustain organisations in today’s turbulent environment, there is simply no place left for a leader (Hollingsworth, as cited in Robinson, 1999). Finally, the essentiality of leadership in an organisation depends greatly on the size and type of a corporation whereas management is equally important in any and all organisations. These points clearly demonstrate that good management is more important to a successfully running organisation than good leadership. All in all, if an organisation were given an ultimatum between a good manager and a good leader, the good manager is likely to prevail.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Juvenile System Essay

Something is wrong in society if more and more teenagers commit delinquent crimes. Focusing on what spawns delinquency in juveniles today, parenting is essential. During my visit to family court with fellow classmates I was honored to observe real live cases involving teenagers, and their parents. It was obvious that one main issue in the U. S. Juvenile Delinquency system is the lack of family structure. Family and delinquent relationships interconnect, ultimately, resulting to the core of delinquency. The articles â€Å"Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure†, by Anika Doggett, and â€Å"Family Influences on Delinquency, written by David P. Farrington, both attempt to explain the effects of family structure on juvenile delinquents. The least amount of communication and structure provided by family only ensures a closer path to delinquent activities a child will engage in. Eventually, a solution or at least an attempt to solve family structure, and parental influence, will need to be instituted in the U. S. juvenile system. Attending family court was an experience in itself because it will forever be memorable. One case in particular that held significant value to me was the one involving a fourteen year old boy who stabbed a delivery worker in the chest with a knife. As the troubled teen entered the court room, all eyes were focusing on him as court officers began to remove him from handcuffs. This proved prior detainment in a detention facility. He approached his seat slow and slouchy, and sat in between his mother and his lawyer. He shared no words, or looks with either of the two as he continued to be seated. I expected a much more intimate greeting once he united with his mother, but to my surprise, neither of them seems interested in such. The young delinquent glanced around the room as he identified everyone present with his low, angry eyes. His hair was uncombed, and he slouched in his chair as if having no interest in the events about to take place. His face was brutally bruised and beaten from what seemed to be fist fights he had back in the detention facility he came from. As the descriptions of the case continued, it was proven that the victim of the stabbing was an innocent, immigrant man who spoke no English. He is from Mexico, and works to support his family being a delivery boy. The victim is only nineteen years old meaning only four years older than his offender. When the victim was mentioned, the juvenile represented was not remorseful. He showed no signs of sympathy for the victim, or his family. He continued to slouch, and be detached from everyone in the court room. As the judge continued to plead his case, he continued to stare forward with a blank stare. Ultimately, the case was postponed to be decided at a later date. The juvenile’s lawyer mentioned the teenager having a consultation with a psychiatrist. The psychiatrist saw symptoms of an antisocial disorder that the teenager processed. He described the teen as feeling emotionally disconnected and detached from things having sentimental value, which would explain his lack of emotion during the case. In the end, the teen was issued back to the detention facility in which he came from. As the case was dismissed, the boy stood up from the bench and was placed back in handcuffs. Once again, he did not look at his mother, speak to her, or acknowledge her even in the slightest way. Somehow, his mother was able to crack a smile when she looked at him, but somehow, it didn’t seem fulfilling to me. Furthermore, I analyzed the underlying cause of this case; lack of family structure. According to Anika Doggett, in the text â€Å"Juvenile Delinquency, and Family Structure†, â€Å"families are one of the strongest socializing forces in life†. (1) Providing stability, unity, and control, families are essentially the foundation of a person. However, it is clear that family factors predict offending. Some strong predictors are criminal or antisocial parents. Other predictors are large family sizes, poor parental supervision, parental conflict, and disrupted families. Children who are rejected by families, who also grow up in unstable homes with large amounts of conflict, or who are unsupervised most of the time, are at greater risk of becoming delinquent. (Doggett 1) In even more specific terms, positive parenting practices during early years of childhood and adolescence appear to act as safety helmets; simply because they add to the structure and foundation of what a child believes, values, and understands as right from wrong. This exact idea is evident in the case. From what I concurred as I watched the court case, the mother and son relationship was troublesome based on the lack of communication they shared. In the text â€Å"Family Influences on Delinquency†, author David Farrington says â€Å"mother love in infancy and childhood was just as important for mental health as vitamins and proteins for physical health†. (211) It is essential that a child experiences a warm, loving, encouraging, continuous relationship with a mother figure from a very young age. If they experience a maternal detriment, as early as the first five years of life, it will have negative effects on the development of their character. This includes becoming an â€Å"affectionless†, and â€Å"cold† person, also a delinquent. This explains the very distant relationship displayed between the mother and son in court. In addition, the fact that the boy’s father was not present is also an important facet in my observation. Farrington states that it is generally common for the loss or absence of a father, rather than a mother. However, this too impacts the future of the juvenile. Children from broken homes are more likely to offend than ones from â€Å"intact families†. (Farrington 211) To further verify this idea, a study was carried out by researcher, Joan McCord, in which she studied the relationship between homes broken by loss of the biological fathers and boys who later commit serious offenses. She found that the prevalence of offending was high for boys from broken homes without affectionate mothers (62 percent) and for those from unbroken homes characterized by parental conflict (52 percent), irrespective of whether they had affectionate mothers.