Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Gospel Of John Essays - Christology, Catharism, Gospel Of John

The Gospel of John annon An Essay Written for A Humanities Course That Studies the Bible As A Historical Document THE GOSPEL OF JOHN: The Man from Heaven, Bread of Life, Light of The World, Living Water, .... and of course, Son of Man. This is who Jesus is in The Gospel of John. Jesus' life is portrayed very differently from the other Synoptic Gospels; he lives completely within symbolism, and glorification. In reading the Gospel of John, I felt that Jesus was (more) clear to me, unlike my feelings in reading Matthew and Mark. Perhaps this is because I have gained knowledge of who the historical Jesus was since my first readings. However, I find that John writes about Jesus and Christianity more in the way that conventional American Christianity practices today! I see the verses most familiar to me (John 3:16), and I see the symbolism that I am used to. Most importantly, I see the lengthy teachings and sayings of Jesus, that are less frequent in the earlier gospels. This is the Jesus I am used to! Throughout this essay, I will show the parallels and differences from the Gospel of John and the earlier gospels (mostly Mark), as I discuss the anonymous evangelist(s)' conception of the word of God. 1. John 3:15 2. John 6:48 3. John 1:4 4. John 7:37-39 5. Has been believed to be: John, Son of Zebedee. The Gospel of John was written between 90-100 ADE. A late book in the New Testament, it deals with different problems than the early Gospel of Mark. Although the book does not try to stray from the special traditions of Christianity (after all, The Christian Church has become strong by this time), the book the Life of Jesus, to meet the needs of the community in 100 ADE. What were the changes that the Johannine Community had to deal with; and, how does the Gospel of John differ from earlier gospels to deal with these changes? The entire new testament is apocalyptic writing, by authors who (obviously) believe in the Parousia. We see a lot of different religions of the time develop a Christ figure ... it is a sign of the times; it reflects that most people were desperate for help from political and social problems that they could not escape. This is the community that the Gospel of Mark wrote for: the desperate, looking toward their God for help. Now the Gospel of John has to deal with the Parousia, that Christians believed was coming. The Johannine author(s) clearly had the Gospel of Mark available to them (and also possibly the Gospel of Luke). 6. I will compare only Gospel of Mark, as it is a main source for all later Gospels. With the entire tradition of the Jewish Christian apocalyptic, the idea could not be completely thrown out. What develops from this is the Johannine Realized Echatology (CH Dodd). This suggests that the future is here now: resurrection, judgement and eternal life are here .... as [you] believe in Jesus. He who s?8?T?ss?=? in Him is en( condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. -- John 3:18 I have mentioned many times that the Gospel writers were very traditional. The Johannine Community, although disenchanted with the idea of a Second Coming of Christ Resurrection, did not want to p?n?f?=?8?s?(?s?8? ? throw out the belief. Most assuredly, I say to you, the hour is coming when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God; and those who hear will live. -- John 5:25 Sounds a bit like hedging your bet, doesn't it? But seriously, the new understanding has shifted from Mark's Day of Judgment (occurring at a specific, unknown time), to John's Day of Judgment part of every day; where, reward or penalty will be seen at one's own time. Before concluding, I would like to make a comparison of the style and presentation of Jesus through the Gospel of John and the Gospel of Mark (the earlier gospel). As N. Perrin pointed-out, John 12:25-26 and Mark 8:34-35 appear to be written as the same thing. We know that John had the Markan writing available to him. How does he translate it? 7. Matthew 24:29-31, example of this. Matthew is nearly a straight translation of Mark (with many additions). Mark 8:34-35: If any man would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me. For whoever would save his life will lose it; and whoever loosed his like for my sake and the gospel's will

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Using Miscue Analysis to Diagnose Reading Difficulties

Using Miscue Analysis to Diagnose Reading Difficulties Miscue analysis is a means to use a running record for diagnosis to identify students specific difficulties. Not only is the running record a way to identify reading rate and reading accuracy, but it also is a way to assess reading behaviors and identify reading behaviors that need support. A miscue analysis is a great way to get some authentic information about a students reading skills, and a means to identify specific weaknesses. Many screening tools will give you a down and dirty estimate of a childs reading proficiency but provide little useful information for designing appropriate interventions. The Miscues to Look for During a Miscue Analysis CorrectionA common sign of a competent reader, a correction is a miscue that the student corrects in order to make sense of the word in the sentence.   InsertionAn insertion is a word(s) added by the child that is not in the text. OmissionDuring oral reading, the student omits a word that changes the meaning of the sentence. RepetitionThe student repeats a word or portion of the text. ReversalA child will reverse the order of the print or the word. (from instead of form, etc.) SubstitutionInstead of reading the word in the text, a child substitutes a word that may or may not make sense in the passage. What Do the Miscues Tell You? CorrectionThis is good!  We want readers to self-correct. However, is the reader reading too fast? Is the reader miscorrecting accurate reading? If so, the reader often doesnt see himself as a good reader. InsertionDoes the inserted word detract from meaning? If not, it may just mean the reader is making sense but also inserts. The reader may also be reading too fast. If the insertion is something like using finished for finish, this should be addressed. OmissionWhen words are omitted, it may mean weaker visual tracking. Determine if the meaning of the passage is affected or not. If not, omissions can also be the result of not focusing or reading too fast. It may also mean the sight vocabulary is weaker. RepetitionLots of repetition may indicate that the text is too difficult. Sometimes readers repeat when theyre uncertain and will repeat the word(s) to keep the words coming as they regroup.   ReversalWatch for altered meaning. Many reversals happen with young readers with high-frequency words.  It may also indicate that the student has difficulty with scanning the text, left to right. SubstitutionsSometimes a child will use a substitution because they dont understand the word being read. Does the substitution make sense in the passage, is it a logical substitution?  If the substitution does not change the meaning, it is often enough to help the child focus on accuracy, because he/she is reading from meaning, the most important skill.   Creating the Miscue Instrument It is often helpful to have the text copied so you can make notes directly on the text.  A double-spaced copy can be helpful. Create a key for each miscue, and be sure to write the substitution or pre-correction above the word that was miscued so you can identify the pattern later.   Reading A-Z provides assessments with the first books at each reading level that provide both the text (for notes) and columns of each of the miscue types.   Performing a Miscue Analysis Miscue analysis is an important diagnostic tool that should be done every 6 to 8 weeks to give a sense if reading interventions are addressing the students needs.  Making sense of the miscues will help you with the next steps to improve the childs reading. It is worthwhile to have a few questions prepared that let you know about the childs comprehension of the passage read as miscue analysis tends to rely on advising you of the strategies used. Miscue analysis may seem time-consuming initially, however, the more you do, the easier the process gets. Use unfamiliar text, not something the child knows from memory.A miscue analysis will be inaccurate when administered to an emerging reader, but the information may still be of value.Give the student some choice in the reading selection.You will need a quiet place without interruptions, it can be very handy to record the child which provides you with an opportunity to listen to the passage more than once.Photocopy the selection the student will read, use this to record the miscues.Record each miscue. (Use hyphens for skipped words, record each substitution (ie, went for when), use for insertion and record the word(s), circle omitted words, underline repeated words, you may also want to use // for repeated words.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

What is the ROLE or RESPONSIBILITY of the CONSULTING ENGINEERS Scholarship Essay

What is the ROLE or RESPONSIBILITY of the CONSULTING ENGINEERS relative to SHAPING and PROTECTING the NATURAL ENVIRONMENT - Scholarship Essay Example role is critical in the success of any project and this is the reason why most of the engineering companies hire highly experienced consulting engineers for their projects. One of the core responsibilities of the consulting engineers is to protect the natural environment by preventing soil and water contamination during the process of construction. Water and soil contamination occur when wastewater from the construction sites fall into the dams and rivers making the water contaminated. The wastewater contains such materials and substances, which are hazardous for the health of water life and humans, and when it is put in the river water, it creates many significant health issues. The role of the consulting engineers is to develop such mechanisms, which should be able to restrict wastewater from reaching the rivers and other water lines. Some other core responsibilities of the consulting engineers include careful evaluation of the environmental benefits, reducing the use of non-renewable resources, restoring and protecting the damaged land and water supplies, and implementing mechanisms for recycling the wastewater. Consulting engineers determine the best construction techniques and materials required for any specific project. They carry out extensive research on various environmental and structural factors in order to design safe and secure buildings. They have various techniques in their minds to avoid the mixing of wastewater and unpolluted water. â€Å"Civil engineering consulting companies often provide combination civil and environmental engineering services, including structural design, pollution prevention, energy-saving methods, and equipment† (Moore). Consulting engineers play a key role setting the dimensions of success for any new project. They are highly qualified individuals and professionals in their fields. â€Å"Because of their professional training and background they have a particular role and obligation towards the protection of the

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

A Male from Saudi Arabia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

A Male from Saudi Arabia - Essay Example In effect, I have decided to become effective in learning the language through writing. In this case, writing will not only help me in the pronunciation of the words, but it will also help me improve my grammar. As a writer, one strength area is in my choice of words during the process of writing. In this case, I ensure clarity in work and avoid wordiness, which is requisite for a good writer since it helps me avoid clichà ©s. On the other hand, my main weakness area lies in the area of evaluating the information to include in my writing. In this case, deciding on which information will help support my thesis statement proves to be a challenge although I am improving on this weakness through research. On the other hand, my approach to writing involves the handling of all writing as a process of creative work that requires time to complete the work and the provision of feedback from an instructor in order to avoid similar mistakes in the future. Finally, I like writing since I am able to learn a lot due to the process of research involved when developing the

Monday, November 18, 2019


INVESTMENT APPRAISAL ASSIGNMENT - Research Proposal Example Project appraisal techniques and methods vary in their importance and significance therefore their use is also dependent upon what are the intended objectives of the finance managers while assessing and evaluating projects. It is also important to note that the basic method which is now being widely accepted as more credible mean of project appraisals is based on the time value of money concepts. Since the project appraisal methods include both the TVM and non- TVM based methods therefore it is up to the finance managers to decide what basic philosophy and method they intend to apply. Return on Investment is one of the several methods of making project appraisals. The basic philosophy behind this method is the fact that finance managers take the expected gains from the project with comparison to the total investment cost of the project. The basic formula for calculating Return on Investment is: ROI is preferred method because of its simplicity. It is to calculate and can be handy and a quick mean of having a look at the overall value addition capability of the investment made. The basic criteria to judge the suitability of the project through this method is the fact that if ROI is positive than the proposed project may be undertaken. It is also important to mention that ROI may not be the most sophisticated... The basic criteria to judge the suitability of the project through this method is the fact that if ROI is positive than the proposed project may be undertaken. It is also important to mention that ROI may not be the most sophisticated method as it has its own drawbacks. It is often argued that this figure can be easily manipulated because the accounting income figure can easily be tempered with by using different means of recording costs and profits. By changing the depreciation methods, the accounting income can easily be increased or decreased therefore ROI would also increase or decrease with the changes in accounting income. Further, Return on Investment also do not take into account the time value of money. Payback Period Payback period is another non-TVM based method used for making decisions on project. Payback period is the time taken to recover back the initial investment made into any project. This method is technically considered as simple and easy to calculate. However, despite its use, this method has some serious flaws including following: 1) Cash flows after the payback period are not taken. 2) It does not take into account any element of risk. 3) Payback period cannot be considered as a method which can be used an indicator of wealth maximization for shareholders. 4) As discussed above, this method also does not take into account the time value of money. Net Present Value Net present value is one of the most widely used methods for making project appraisal methods as it is considered as more accurate methods. Net Present value is basically the difference between the present value of the cash outflows and Cash Inflows. If the present value of Cash Inflows is greater than Cash out flows, the project is accepted and if it is negative project is

Friday, November 15, 2019

People And Organisational Development

People And Organisational Development This paper deals with the various problems organizations face while implementing change. It looks at change both from the organizational point of view and the individuals perspective focusing more on the latter. It considers the various process and models involved in change management. The paper compromises gists of a case studies which is attached as an appendice. Finally the paper concludes by pointing out the drawbacks and offering suitable suggestions for the organization undergoing change taking into account the short term and long term benefits. NOTE: Case study summarized in appendix 1   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  CCC- Coxs Container Company   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  BBC- Byfields Business College Introduction Change is a continuous process which every organization or individual undergoes at some point. Defining change management is sometimes a very complicated process. To find the exact definition to fit the purpose underpins the professionalism of the organization. Voropajev (1998) states change management as an integral process related to all internal and external factors in projects, influencing project changes. It also involves identification of possible changes already occurred and coordinated changes across the entire project. (Appendix) write out the 6 points in Voropajev BNET Business Dictionary best describes it by keeping it simple and states it as â€Å"the coordination of a structured period of transition from situation A to situation B in order to achieve lasting change within an organization.† To make it simpler we can describe it as the changes organizations perform to realize benefits or to develop a profit making business. Change is the requirement for competitive success. Change is not a simple process done overnight, it requires thoughtful planning and implementation and should involve consultation and involvement of all the people (stakeholders, employees, consumers) who are going to be affected by the change. Change management faces both internal, external factors and approaches related to projects. Hence managing change is a very important. Change is not a single action or initiative. It involves various theories underpinned by Cameron Green (2004) such as Organizational change Team Change Individual change Cultural change The core objective to be put forward is whether the organization is entitled for benefits due to the changes suggested and the dis-benefits the organization will face if the changes are not initiated. Change needs to be measurable, realistic and achievable for it to have an impact on the organization and individual. Burnes (2009) identified the two dominant managing change approaches as identifying the strengths and weakness of organizations, and situations they are designed to address. But even by applying this does not cover problems organizations face. Burnes (2009) also states that both planned and emergent changes have benefits both practically and theoretically but they neglect other approaches. So a framework built to fit change is a better option and making it flexible for future changes goes even further. The ADKAR model (Appendix) proposed by porsci () acts as a useful tool and when realized in a sequence of steps helps individuals and organizations to manage successful change. Many organizations used this to good effect and Jeff Hiatt (1998,2006) developed it further and prioritized on individuals when achieving change successful. Reasons for Changes Problems facing Coxs Container Company (CCC) Nearing retirement of Founder Managing Director High Market Competition Reduced margins Erica Wilson survey entirely on her own Fear of job cuts No training Change not consulted with employees Cultural issues Non co-operation of manager employees Addition of new consultant Lack of communication between top management employees 2/3 staff work in the production department Are people ready to change? What is the best strategy for change? What is the best leadership style Vermeulen (1997) Resistance to change We (human beings) have always constituted to the major share of resistance to change. The bulk of scientific evidence suggests that the more the individual is enabled to exercise control over his/her task and relates his efforts to his fellows it is lot more likely to gain a positive commitment. Paton James (2008) This shows a basis of a democratic government. A fair amount of disagreement and resistant is often seen in change because it is disruptive and stressful. Kotter and Schlesinger (1979) suggested four ways why people resist change Parochial or narrow-minded self-interest Misunderstanding Low tolerance to change Different assessments of the situation People tend to posses fixed ideas and follow certain rules which have worked well for them in the past. But due to advancement in technology, science and trends different organizations tend to be updated with the latest advancement which requires changes or perhaps even re-organising the way they work. Organizational personnels not adapting to this change face the 4 change resistance stated above by Kotter and Schlesinger. But the leader has to assess the situation before implementing the new changes. BBC CCC (Appendix) both dont indicate the assessment being carried out taking all stakeholders involved in the change. Who Performs the Change? A highly debated question is that not many people like change and the people making the decisions come in the firing line if it backfires. Habits are part of every persons life but is counterproductive when it deals with change. Change process or change curve evolves through number of mental phases. Denial Frustration Negotiating or bargaining Depression Acceptance Experimentation Discovery of delight Intergration Baekdal, Hansen, Todbjerg and Mikkelsen (2006) Leaders or managers are the people who initiate the change. As mentioned earlier by Cameron Green (2004) the various changes taking place usually the initiator plays a huge part. At BBCs (Appendix) the director forced changes which affected the work environment and a lot of resistance from employees was portrayed but it invariablelly brought down the performance. Two rather contrasting points to put forward both in BBC CCC the individuals accepted change and the individual repelled changes respectively. John l Thompson 73 Role of Leader in Change Management Leaders seem to infer the phrase change management as means of getting the organization to perform what they want. Cramm (2003) in her research article stress that this only affects the people. This could only lead to the lack of the vision not being migrated from the head of the leader to the hands of the employee. Even strategic planning can go to the drain if there is lack in vision. VISION  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  STRATEGY  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  IMPLEMENTATION Leaders need not possess single recommended style. Thompson (1997) Some are autocratic others democratic in the way they make their decisions. Each relies on different strengths such as planning and analyzing, some are intuitive and visionary. What exactly we need of leaders is going up to people and involving them as part of the process. Gaining Inputs Stakeholder views Likes Dislikes Cramm (2003) states that â€Å"true spirit of change management is enabling all employees to express and apply their knowledge in a way that benefits each of them and the organization.† Burnes (2009) also emphasis that employee empowerment as crucial to successful change, especially when there is attitude and culture involved. For this in turn leads us to motivation being an important criterion. He further compared three theories in order to understand employee involvement. Depth of Intervention Cognitive Dissonance Psychological Contract Burnes (2009) There are a few key aspects to be considered by leaders or managers who take on challenge of change. Recognizing group consent a major influence on willingness to change Convey and emphasize two trust Training a part of building process Allowing enough time for change Encourage people to adopt basic idea to fit the real world and them   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Vermulen (1997) et al. Deal Kennedy (1988) The employees have to be convinced that this change is going to benefit them and is done taking into account the best interest of the organization and the employees. Fragmented leadership is a huge cause of outputs being brought down. There always is a need for a well structured plan to achieve transformation. Carr Littman (1990, p. 195) et al. Vermulen (1997) identified nine steps needed for successful cultural transformation process. Planning for cultural change Assessing the current state of quality culture Training managers and the workforce Management adopting and modeling the new behavior Making organizational and regulation changes that support quality action Redesign individual performance appraisal and monetary reward systems to reflect the principles of total quality management Changing budget practices Rewarding positive changes Using communication tools to reinforce TQM principles Hence the leader has to pay extensive attention to cultural change since it is a sensitive issue. Diagnosing and analyzing the organizations character will provide assessment of the strength and weakness. This can be further built upon. This makes the implementation a easier procedure to be carried out. Managing the Individual Culture Changing organizational structure can be done rather quickly but the cultural change is a long process and consumes time. Kanter (1992) et al Burnes (2009) The fact that many people or even teams are repulsive towards the word change is that they are worried if their individual roles and responsibilities would be affected. People are more suited towards performing actions which they are familiar with. Hence Cameron Green (2004) stress the fact that managing the individual and people within the organization is an important criteria. Thompson (1997) states that if culture and power is overlooked, implementation may not be possible. Baekdal, Hansen, Todbjerg and Mikkelsen (2006) state that change management is more about the people and higher efficiency does not come from working harder but from within. Higher efficiency comes from motivation, complete understanding for the entire process and self worth. This has to be focused on a large scale if the company is to improve. The strategic leader plays an important part in the culture of the organization. Attitudes and behavior of employees are affected as well as willingness to accept responsibilities and taking measured risks due to these changes. The culture of an organization is associated to the personality of the individual. Culture and communication cannot be separated and for this to be put in place common assumptions have to be made. Catwright et al Mullins (2005) sees culture as a system of management authority and states three ways employees react. They identify themselves with their organization accept its rules when it is the right thing to do. Internalize the organisations values when they believe they are right and They motivated to achieve the organization objectives Catwright et al Mullins (2005) There are many types of cultures seen in organizations which are cited in Mullins (2005) pg 892 893). But person culture plays as a huge part usually. It sometimes could be people getting together to agreeing with a certain system like the one of sharing cakes on Fridays at BBC. This atmosphere has worked well and has not hindered their success. But forced changes made by the new management has affected the working and led to inefficiencies. Every organization has its own unique culture and large organization posses a mix or cultures. Different people like working in different environments and they get more satisfied and this makes them happy which reflects on their performance. But Dean Kennedy et al Burnes (2005) categorise corporate cultures bearing two factors The degree of risk associated with the organisations activities and The speed at which organizations and their employees receive feedback on the success of decisions or strategies. Change Factors Free market competition is a driving source for organizations and individuals to innovate and change Communication communication strategy Involving people who are going to be directly affected by the changes is crucial and setting up a communication strategy is vital. This has immense effect on reducing the uncertainty people face and assures them of their involvement. By implementing this particular procedure the employees are draw into discussions and gives them the right to debate about the changes. This discussion can convince them why the change is needed rather than just being told to do changes which they really dont know why is being suggested. This can reduce anger, frustration etc being cultivated. This is best described in a mini case study cited in Burnes (2009) where the trade union convenor for NHS had problems with the top managements way of implementing change. Change was not consulted but ordered. This de-motivated the entire department and lack of staff support was evident. The situation seemed not like changing until the new chief executive taking the post on the very first day saw the problem and went to the head of the union. This was a huge step forward since it gave the union head and its employees the assurance of their involvement and them being heard out. This resulted in changes not being possible previously were possible now. It required only a little bit of courtesy and thought to initiate this step. This small win was a big step forward which contributed heavily to the change process. 500 words Management Union Meetings Having management union meetings to address the problems facing the organization and the drop in operational quality is needed. The fact that none of the changes have been discussed with the union is seen as a drawback. The management and the employees can come to mutual agreements and speak over conflicts which are hindering the changes from not being employed. Perhaps suggesting a few compensations to employees might work in favour of the management. Corbett (1994) Drawbacks of Change To every positive there is a negative. If change is not realized tendency to rely on a particular area is too strong and critical factor needed for success will not be built upon. In this every changing world change is the essence for success. Case study at McDonalds Thompson (1997) the smallest change such as change in menu also affects the people involved in making the food since they are accustomed to making the same previous menu. The motivation and moral is suppressed due to this change which will affect quality and time initially. But the organization is going to benefit so this change has to be realized. Forced change and accepted change are two changes which are not discussed often. Case Study Wave management Since over 2/3 of the companys employees work in production department and the fact that they have been working for the past 10 years, managing them to adapt to the changes is critical. Two main steps to put down are Involvement of employees in changes Finding ways to manage them Ezzamel, Green, Lilley Willmott (1995) state that organizations should be leaner, creative and adaptive. Bureaucracy hierarchical control have a lot of drawbacks. Having a network with a shared culture will make the employees committed to the core values of the organization which will bring down the cumbersome hierarchy and its cost. This is needed since there seems to be a vacuum when it comes to confrontation between top management and employees. This new wave management can lead to lot of future emphasis such as Problem-solve through participation Facilitate employee self-discipline Effectively develop HR Flexibly appreciate contingency ambiguity Ezzamel et al. (1995) Ezzamel et al. (1995) also state that managers are not required enforcing rules to control workforce. But this could lead to some problems with respect to disciplinary and motivation. Having cross-functional managers is a way to bring the top management and employees closer. This will bring self disciple as well as a constant monitoring process together which will benefit the organization. This eradicates functional specialism and boundary wjich are seen as obstacles for project management. Strategic management The steps mentioned below is probably the basic best process in achieving change. Planning to achieve the desired output needs a strategy to be implemented. Morgans (1986) et al. Burnes (2009) organizational metaphors 8 point description is good but many people rather prefer Johnsons Scholes (1993) et al. Some problems cannot be solved but only managed and adding value helps to manage change. Values such as awareness, responsibility, teamwork, tolerance and teamwork are supreme just as flexibility and change readiness. Specify time line Specifying the time line for the change to take place is often neglected by organizations. As seen from CCC or BBC case study (Appendix) there is no mention of time frame which does not help to achieve short term or long term wins. This could sometimes weaken the change process and become barriers for change management. Drawing time lines analyzing time lines are crucial to planning and implementation process. 500 words Remedies Motivation Engaging people Ways to make them understand (Educate Regulate them of the situation) Stats (projections) Positive attitude we are not victims, dont take it personal, global competition Get out of a comfort zone loss or opportunities Be a better player you fail company fails Re tool and re invent yourself einstien slogan Ask better questions + attitude Poor planning involve team communicate Dont see the point why will they want to change If ROI is not there then no company will be happy Motivation Manage change Setting Exampes Managing change is an important ingredient to achieving change. It is the responsibility of the management and many organizations fail to do so. There is no point blaming the workers. McCormic () states that effectively dealing with emotional response to change as a key criteria. Managers have their reasons to resist change. This may be due to the fact that they might feel that the change is not going to have effects or lack of trust in the management. Possible solution Top management needs to consider solutions from managers and them in turn from workers. People disagreeing must not be beaten down for their expressions. Top management must review the suggestions and analyze there is enough funds (Executive Sponsorship) to carry out the process if agreed. Open communication two way and honest opinions must be given Expectations must be robust and everyone must be aware of the change. Reporting system must be initiated on mutual grounds. By implementing these steps most managers will tend to be won over by the management and the employees will follow suit. Cultural effects on TQM Culture plays an important part in an organization involving every individual contributing to it and helps change over a period of time. Management plays the most important roles in achieving this transformation. Vermulen (1997) Vermulen (1997) identifies companys culture as major issue hindering TQM and change. Companies through is policies and day to day actions usually send signals defining what is important and proper which in turn helps employees act accordingly. If an audit could be carried out like questionnaires, personal interviews etc this can assess the situation and a feedback system would be created which helps gain commitment and awareness of the present situation. Vermulen (1997) states management must accept and follow accordingly even though there might be differences more than conformance. But what this does in the CCCs situation is that since 2/3 of the company employees work in the same department and are of similar cultural background. This is not always the solution. What effects change can bring STUDENT ID : 469131Page 8

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Essay --

First Amendment Rights During War Considering that the 1st Amendment of the Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, can and should government regulate hate speech, or seek to address the harm it causes? Based on a premise that there is no such a thing as absolute right or absolute freedom, we can infer that a government can and should regulate any speech and seek to address the harm it causes; but the real issue is -- where, when, and how can it be regulated? Trying to balance both, freedom of speech and the fear of an inflammatory press report, the Supreme Court has produced probably the most famous legalistic test -- "clear and present danger." The underlying idea is that bureaucrats cannot punish a speaker/writer unless he/she creates a "clear and present danger" to others. Theoretically, this standard appears to be supportive of the right to speak freely. However, in practice, it is difficult to determine â€Å"when† the danger was "clear" enough for an "avera ge" reporter, how remote it could be and yet still be considered "present," and how precisely hazardous the "danger" should be to justify suppression of a speech. In addition to speech, the 1st Amendment protects writing, demonstrating, parading, leafleting, and certain forms of symbolic expression. The freedom of speech becomes a subject to "reasonable time, manner, and place" regulations, as long as these regulations are "content-neutral." Translating this legalistic jargon in plain English, the bureaucrats cannot restrict the content of what the speaker has to say, but it is their prerogative to reason what "reasonable" time, manner, and place are. And we know how they usually define what "reasonable" is (for them, of course). Brandenburg vs. Ohio In Brandenbu... ...otential attackers across a wider geographic area." Such a flat-out conclusion -- about 180 degrees from the trumpeted rationale for spending billions in Afghanistan -- might seem to merit more than a few dozen words. The assessment, while prominent, was brief and fleeting. It seemed to cause little stir in American news media. So, actually, First Amendment is not really a guarantee. It's a promissory ideal that can be redeemed only by media vitality in the present. If freedom of speech can be augmented by freedom to be heard, then Americans may hear enough divergent voices to disabuse themselves of easy and deadly clichà ©s. References 1) Norman Solomon’s book "The Habits of Highly Deceptive Media" 2) Schenck Case retrieved from http://www.thisnation.com/library on 23/04/2003 3) Cases Incorporated: Schenck v. U.S., Brandenburg Vs. Ohio and U.S. v. O’Brien.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Auditing, Financial/Tax and Management Accounting

To obtain a challenging position utilizing several years experience in Accounting, Computers or Management Own and operate a Computer business. Rebuild and make custom built computers per request. Provide computer training,repair,web design. Union Planters Trust & Investment Management Manage investment fund accounts and ensure proper trade and balance. Maintain and process records. May Company, World Omni, Onsite Staffing Collections Manager/Collections Analyst Manage customer.s accounts and ensure line of credit. Maintain and process internal records of Collection. Prepare legal documentation as needed. Initiate credit investigations and establish Documentation for collection on indirect loans, direct loans, home equity and line of credit. Dresser Industries,Manpower Temporary Service, American Building Material Accountant, Collections Manager, Export Biller Assigned to companies in need of assistance with their accounting department. To include general ledger, Taxes, accounts receivable, accounts payable, collections, credit and payroll. Administer procedures for branch managers for collection. Managed credit for customers for eight States. Managed customer accounts and maintained and processed internal records of collection. Initiate credit investigations. Prepared legal documentation. Journal entries through month end closing. Reconciliation, financial statement presentation. Computer literacy with mainframe software and PC spreadsheet software. Auditing: checking accounting ledgers and financial statements within the corporation. Budget Analysis: responsible For developing and managing the organizations financial plans. Financial: prepare financial statements based on General ledgers and participate in important financial decisions involving mergers & acquisitions, benefits/ERISA Planning and long-term financial projections. Management Accounting: decisions about capital budgeting and line of business analysis. Major functions included cost analysis, analysis of new contracts and participation in efforts to control expenses efficiently. Responsibility to spend money in the company at the right level of our Organizational goals and objectives to control cost being communicated effectively Tax: prepare corporate income Tax statements and formulate tax strategies involving issues such as financial choice, deferral of taxes, when to Expense items Responsibilities included the management of the following functions: Accoun! ting, financial planning And reporting, payroll, human resources, internal computer support. Developed Standard operating procedures for Inventory control, Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable. Implemented new accounting system from manual to Daceasy. Supervised 15 employees, administered several audits.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Open Flow Essays

Open Flow Essays Open Flow Essay Open Flow Essay Load Balancing Surya Prateek Surampalli Information Technology Department, Southern Polytechnic State University [emailprotected] edu Abstract- in high-traffic Internet today, it is often desirable to have multiple servers that represent a single logical destination server to share the load. A typical configuration comprises multiple servers behind a load balancer that would determine which server would serve the request of a client. Such equipment is expensive, has a rigid set of rules, and is a single point of failure.In this paper, I propose an idea and design for an alternative load-balancing architecture with the help of an OpenFlow switch connected to a NOX controller that gains political flexibility, less expensive, and has the potential to be more robust to failure with future generations of switches I. Introduction In today’s increasingly internet-based cloud services, a client sends a request to URL or a logical server and receives a response from a potentially multiple servers acts as a logical address server.Google server is said to be the best example, the request is sent to server farm as soon as the client resolves the IP address from the URL [1]. Load balancers are expensive that acts as a reverse proxy and distributes network or application traffic across a number of servers. Load balancers are used to increase capacity (concurrent users) and reliability of applications. They improve the overall performance of applications by decreasing the burden on servers associated with managing and maintaining application and network sessions, as well as by performing application-specific tasks [1].Since load balancers are not basic equipment and run custom software, policies are rigid in their choices. Specific administrators are required and also the arbitrary policies are not possible to implement. Since running policy and the switch are connected it is reduced to a single point of failure [2]. The order of magnitude will cost less than a commercial load-balancer if architecture with an OpenFlow switch is implemented which is controlled by the commodity server and also provides flexibility for writing patterns which allow the controller to be applied arbitrary political [1].If the next generation of OpenFlow switches has the capability of connecting to multiple controllers, there is a chance of making the system much robust to abortion by keeping the any serv er behind the which that acts as the controller [1]. II. Background A. Load Balancing Load balancing helps make networks more efficient. It distributes the processing and traffic evenly across a network, making sure no single device is overwhelmed [1]. Web servers, as in the example above, often use load balancing to evenly split the traffic load among several different servers.This allows them to use the available bandwidth more effectively, and therefore provides faster access to the websites they host [3]. Whether load balancing is done on a local network or a large Web server, it requires hardware or software that divides incoming traffic among the available servers. Networks that receive high amounts of traffic may even have one or more servers dedicated to balancing the load among the other servers and devices in the network. These servers are often called (not surprisingly) load balancers [1].Load balancing can be performed using dedicated hardware devices such as load balanc ers or having intelligent DNS servers. A DNS server can redirect traffic data centre with a heavy load or redirect requests made by customers for a data centre that is less network stretches from clients. Many data centres use of expensive hardware load balancing equipment that makes in distributing the network traffic across multiple machines to avoid congestion on a server. A DNS server resolves a hostname to a single IP address where the client sends the request. To the outside world there is a logical address that resolves a host name [3].This IP address is not associated with a single machine, but is the type of service a client request. DNS can resolve a host name to a load balancer within a data centre. But this could be avoided for safety reasons and to avoid attacks on the device. When a client request comes to the load balancer, the request is redirected according to the policy. B. OpenFlow Switch An OpenFlow switch is a software program or hardware device that forwards pa ckets in a software-defined networking (SDN) environment. OpenFlow switches are either based on the OpenFlow protocol or compatible with it [1].In a conventional switch, packet forwarding (the data plane) and high-level routing (the control plane) occur on the same device. In software-defined networking, the data plane is decoupled from the control plane. The data plane is still implemented in the switch itself but the control plane is implemented in software and a separate SDN controller makes high-level routing decisions. The switch and controller communicate by means of the OpenFlow protocol. The OpenFlow switch on the other hand uses an external controller called NOX to add rules into its flow table. C. NOX ControllerNOX is a network control platform, that provides a high-level programmatic interface upon which network management and control applications can be built. In brevity, NOX is an OpenFlow controller [3]. Therefore, NOX applications mainly assert flow-level control of t he network meaning that they determine how each flow is routed or not routed in the network. The OpenFlow switch is connected to the NOX controller and communicates over a secure channel using the OpenFlow protocol. The current design of OpenFlow only allows one NOX controller per switch. The NOX controller decides how packets of a new flow should be handled by the switch.When new flows arrive at the switch, the packet gets redirected to the NOX controller which then decides whether the switch should drop the packet or forward it to a machine connected to the switch. The NOX controller can also delete or modify existing flow entries in the switch. The NOX controller can execute modules that describe how a new flow should be handled. This provides us an interface to write C++ modules that dynamically add or delete routing rules into the switch and can use different policies for handling flows. D. Flow Table A flow table entry of an OpenFlow switch consists of a header fields, counter s and actions.Each flow table entry stores Ethernet, IP and TCP/UDP header information. This information includes destination/source MAC and IP address and source/destination TCP/UDP port numbers. Each flow table entry also maintains a counter of number of packets, and bytes arrived per flow. A flow table entry can also have one or more action fields that describe how the switch will handle packets that match the flow entry. Some of the actions include sending the packet on all output ports, forwarding the packet on an output port of a particular machine and modifying packet headers (Ethernet, IP and TCP/UDP header).If a flow entry does not have any actions, then the switch drops all packets for the particular flow. Each Flow entry also has an expiration time after which the flow entry is deleted from the flow table. This expiration time is based on the number of seconds a flow was idle and the total amount the time (in seconds) the flow entry has been in the flow table. The NOX con troller can chose a flow entry to exist permanently in the flow table or can set timers which delete the flow entry when the timer expires. III. Load-Balancer DesignLoad balancing architecture comprises an OpenFlow switch with a control device of NOX and server machines connected to output ports of the switch server. The OpenFlow switch uses an interface to connect to the Internet. Each server has a static IP address and NOX controller maintains a list of currently connected to the OpenFlow switch servers. Each server is running web server emulation on a well known port. [pic] Figure1. Load-balancer architecture using OpenFlow switch and NOX controller The hostname of server to IP address is resolved by each client and a request is sent to that IP address on the known port number.If you consider the above diagram, when a packet is reached to the switch from the client, the header information of the packet is compared with the entries of the flow table. If the header information of t he packet corresponds to an inlet of the flow, the counter for the number of packets, the byte count is incremented, and the actions associated with the input of the flow are performed on the packet. If no match is found, the switch forwards the packet to NOX. NOX decides how the packet for this flow should be handled by the switch. NOX and then inserts a new article in the cash flow of the switch using the OpenFlow protocol.To achieve load-balancing features, the modules should be written in C++ that is executed by NOX controller. NOX should perform the function of handle () when a new flow arrives at the switch. This function sets the load balancing policy and adds new rules in the flow table of the switch. All client requests should be destined for the same IP address, then whatever the module is executed by NOX, should add rules for each flow which can modify the destination MAC and IP address of the packet with a server’s MAC and IP address. The switch will forward the p acket to the server output port after modifying the packet header.When servers return a packet to the client, the module adds an entry flow that changes the source IP address with the IP address of the host that the client sends its request. So the client should always receive packets from the same IP address. If the client connection / server connection is closed or remains idle for 10 seconds, then the inactivity timer expires causing the input stream to be deleted from the cash flow of the switch. This allows input stream recycling Servers wait for a NOX to register and then report their current load on some schedule similar to the Listener Pattern.NOX in a separate thread listening on a UDP socket for heartbeats with reported by server loads and maintains a table with the current loads of all servers. When applying for a new stream is received, it chooses the server with the lowest and the load current increases to the low current server. This prevents flow of all flows routed t o the same server as the server reports a new load. It also breaks ties by turning it into a round robin until the servers report their actual load heartbeat. Flow Algorithm Require: Flow, path 1: sourceHost = LocateSource(flow); 2: destinationHost = LocateDestination(flow); : layer = setToplayer(); 4: currentSwitch = LocateCurrentSwitch(); 5: direction = 1; //upward 6: path = null; //list of switches 7: return search (); This algorithm works as follows. When the OpenFlow controller receives a packet from a switch, it switches the control to the load balancer. Line 1 to 6 introduces the initialization for necessary variables. The load balancer ? rstly analyses the packet’s match information including the input port on the switch that receives the packet as well as the packet’s source address and destination address. Then it looks up those addresses using its knowledge about the network topology.Once the source and destination hosts are located, the load balancer calcul ates the top layer that the ? ow needs to access. We use the search direction ? ag. The ? ag has two values: 1 for upward and 0 for downward. It is initialized to 1. A path is created for saving a route grouped by a list of switches later. Line 7 calls search () that performs the search for paths recursively. In the method search (), It ? rstly adds current switch into path. It returns the path if current search reaches the bottom layer. It reverses the search direction if current search reaches the top layer.Then it calls a method 1: search () { 2: path. add(curSwitch); 4: if isBottomLayer(curSwitch) then 5: return path; 6: end if 7: if curSwitch. getLayer ( ) == layer then 8: direction = 0; //reverse 9: end if 10: links = findLinks(curSwitch, direction); 11: link = findWorstFitLink(links); 12: curSwitch = findNextSwitch(link); 13: return search (); 14:} that returns all links on current switch that are towards current search direction. Only one link is chosen by picking up the wor st-? t link with maximum available bandwidth. And then the current switch object is updated.The method search () is called recursively layer by layer from the source to destination. At last the path will be return to the load balancer. The path information will be used for updating ? ow tables of those switches in the path. Flow Scheduling The Flow scheduling functionality works as follows. Each OpenFlow switch maintains its own ? ow table. Whenever any packet comes in, the switch checks the packet’s match information with the entries in its ? ow table. The packet’s match information includes ingressPort, etherType, srcMac, dstMac, vlanID, srcIP, dstIP, IP protocol, T CP/UDP srcPort, TCP/UDP dstPort.If it ? nds a match, it will send out the packet to the corresponding port. Otherwise it will encapsulate the packet in a PACKET IN message and send the message to the controller. As a module of the OpenFlow controller, the load balancer will handle the PACKET IN message. I t ? nds a proper path by executing a search with the DLB algorithm described in Algorithm 1. The path is a list of switches from source to destination of the packet. Then the load balancer creates one FLOW MOD message for each switch in the path and sends it to the switch.This message will have the packet’s match information as well as a output port number on that switch. The output port number is directly calculated by the path and network topology. If one switch receives a FLOW MOD message, it will use it to update its ? ow table accordingly. Those packets buffered on ports of that switch may ? nd their matches in the updated ? ow table and be sent out. Otherwise the switch will repeat this process. IV. Future Work The OpenFlow specification includes an optional feature that would allow multiple NOXs to make active connections to the switch.In the case then of the NOX failing, another machine could assume the role of the NOX and continue routing traffic. Naturally the syste m would need to detect the failure, have a mechanism to remember any state associated with the current policy, and all servers would have to agree on who the new NOX was. These requirements naturally lend themselves to the Paxos consensus algorithm in which policy and leader elections can be held and preserved with provable progress [3]. We have implemented Paxos in another research project and could add it to our server implementation at the controller/signaler layer.As long as at least half of the nodes in the cluster stay up, state will be preserved and traffic should continue to flow. V. Conclusion It is possible to achieve similar functionality to a commercial load balancer switches using only physical commodities. The OpenFlow switch provides the flexibility to implement the arbitrary policy in software and politics separate the switch itself. Since the policy is decoupled from the switch, we can avoid the machine implementation of the policy of a single point of failure and t he creation of a more robust system. References [1] OpenFlow Switch Specification.Version 0. 8. 9 (Wire Protocol 0x97). Current maintainer: Brandon Heller ([emailprotected] edu). December 2, 2008. [2] Web caching and Zipf-like distributions: evidence and implications. Breslau, L. Pei Cao Li Fan Phillips, G. Shenker, S. Xerox Palo Alto Res. Center, CA. INFOCOM 1999. [3] Paxos Made Simple. Leslie Lamport [4] M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat. A Scalable, Commodity Data Center Network Architecture. ACM SIGCOMM, 2008. [5] C. E. Leiserson. Fat-trees: Universal networks for hardware-ef? cient supercomputing. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 1985. [6] T. Benson, A. Anand, A.Akella, and M. Zhang. Understanding Datacenter Traf? c Characteristics. SIGCOMM WREN workshop, 2009. [7] HOPPS, C. Analysis of an Equal-Cost Multi-Path Algorithm. RFC 2992, IETF, 2000. [8] W. J. Dally and B. Towles. Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks. Morgan Kaufmann Publisher, 2004. [9] S. Kandu la, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, P. Patel and R. Chaiken. The Nature of Data Center Traf? c: Measurements Analysis. ACM IMC 2009. [10] N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner. OpenFlow: Enabling Innovation in Campus Networks.ACM SIGCOMM CCR, 2008. [11] R. N. Mysore, A. Pamporis, N. Farrington, N. Huang, P. Miri, S. Radhakrishnan, V. Subramanya, and A. Vahdat. PortLand: A Scalable, Fault-Tolerant Layer 2 Data Center Network Fabric. ACM SIGCOMM, 2009. [12] Beacon OpenFlow Controller https://OpenFlow. stanford. edu/display/Beacon/Home. [13] B. Lantz, B. Heller, and N. McKeown. A Network in a Laptop: Rapid Prototyping for Software-De? nded Networks. ACM SIGCOMM, 2010. [14] Y. Zhang, H. Kameda, S. L. Hung. Comparison of dynamic and static load-balancing strategies in heterogeneous distributed systems.Computers and Digital Techniques, IEE, 1997. [15] OpenFlow Switch Speci? cation, Version 1. 0. 0. OpenFlow. org/documents/Op enFlow-spec-v1. 0. 0. pdf. [16] N. Handigol, S. Seetharaman, M. Flajslik, N. McKeown, and R. Johari. Plug-n-Serve: Load-balancing web traf? c using OpenFlow. ACM SIGCOMM Demo, 2009. [17] R. Wang, D. Butnariu, J. Rexford. OpenFlow-Based Server Load Balancing Gone Wild. Hot ICE, 2011. [18] M. Koerner, O. Kao. Multiple service load-balancing with OpenFlow. IEEE HPSR, 2012. Figure 2: Load-Balancer block diagram architecture using OpenFlow switch and NOX controller.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Reverend or Aldulterer essays

Reverend or Aldulterer essays Adultery, in societies around the world, is believed to be one of many major transgressions. Penalties for adultery sometimes include death or imprisonment, along with guilt suffering. In The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, adultery is a blunder made by Arthur Dimmsdale, a famous minister in Boston. Reverend Dimmsdale suffers greatly from his guilt which causes him to be very emotional and punish himself; although, his sermons during this time were profoundly motivational. Arthur Dimmsdale suffers from many emotions after committing adultery: two of which being grief and guilt. First, grief occurs because he knows he has done wrong but cannot change it. For example, Dimmsdale says Of penance, I have had enough (129). In this passage Hawthorne uses the word penance meaning that Dimmsdale shows sorrow for his wrong doing. Similarly, guilt also occurs within Dimmsdale. In many instances Reverend Dimmsdale confesses he is a sinner too, but his congregation thinks even more of him. They heard it all, and did but reverence him the more. Consequently, his grief and guilt of his sin was overwhelming. Next, even though Arthur Dimmsdale is a pastor, his self-discipline fizzles from time to time and prevails the rest. The pastor, unwed to Hester, loves her and conceives a child with her but punishes himself later for it. First, shortly after Hester tells Dimmsdale who his physician really is, evidence of their love is revealed. What we did had a consecration of its own. We felt it so! We said so to each other (131). It is now known that Hester and the reverend had love for each other. Furthermore, after Dimmsdale and Hester fall in love, they are once again defeated by sin and have a child. Again, Reverend Dimmsdales self-discipline plunders in a moment o ...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Monetary System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Monetary System - Essay Example In. order to compensate with the needs, they have to buy currencies which are more recognized in the world and with this, they need a larger volume of their monetary resources in which they will have to spend tremendous amount just to meet or purchase a certain currency. By doing so, the value of their currency will be more likely affected and it may cause sudden change of the prices of basic goods and commodities. To add to that, if they do have a lesser monetary value, that certain country might resort in money in some monetary agencies in both local and international. Having this practice will ease or lessen the burden of a certain country with regards to their monetary scheme. However, if that certain debt would not be paid off immediately or given proper attention, then it would be another factor in weakening the value of a certain currency. The concerned country will further focus in paying off their debts and with this it will also need tremendous amount of money in terms of p ayment of the principal as well as the interest. If the concerned party would pay for their debts, it will need tremendous amount of money and the inflation rate would also rise, as the value of their money would be further weakened. ... If this happens, the economy of that certain government would face stagnation in which their economy would rely on loans and debts made by the government. The question is, if there comes a time that this government would not be able to lend a new one, how would they be able to pay their obligations and deliver the needs of its constituents. Then, it would be more difficult for that government to establish the stability of its currency. With this, it would more likely to produce another inflation and will lead to another depreciation of the value of their currency. Also, this would also mean that they would fail to pay their current obligations and with this they not be entitled for future loans in some international monetary institutions and this would really mean a serious problem. During these stages, prices of basic commodities will rise as prices in producing goods with the use of electricity, manpower, raw materials and the likes would also have their own highs and this would re ally mean a serious problem for that certain country. If the cost of production were high, then the burden would also be passed to the consumer, which will affect the prices of goods. Prices of transportation, communication and some related industries would not be spared in encountering such a scenario. This would also mean that the workforce would demand for higher wages to compensate their daily needs in which sometimes lead to closure of the industries or field specialization that they are working. Without further production then there would be a little source of income for the country, there would be less tax payers, and will affect the revenue collection of the government. With this, the government would be pressured to sell

Friday, November 1, 2019

Job Description Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Job Description - Essay Example From this draft, changes in actual wording are done so that the final expression of job duties and related conditions matches the factors assessed. There should be a correlation between the job rating scale and job description’s wording in the document because the inequities could be fostered (Perry, 2008). The safeguards measures against discrepancies are included in the job description process by the HR manager. In additional, to the overall job classification, wage, salary and fringe benefit incentives may be predicted on the information achieved in the job description process. In deriving the job description, it is vital to assess the written document for its adequacy in conveying information about the factors used in job rating and salary considerations. Certain steps in the recruitment process are outlined in developing the description document, and adequate information to help prospective employees to make a preliminary determination. In developing the job description document, the unit managers must convey the significant information about responsibilities and qualifications of the candidates that are used in the selection process. According to Perry (2008), the training programs are listed, and training outcomes are stated in terms of trainee’s ability to perform duties. Thus, performance evaluations are also indicated in developing the job description document. Finally, the information to determine eligibility for claims under an employee’s compensation and similar programs are indicated in the job description document. According to Hernandez and O’Connor (2009), jobs in the organizational structure of healthcare are dynamic in nature due to the chances in size and nature of an organization. Meanwhile, the introduction of the employment of new treatment mechanisms that have influence on duties and requirements of the job requires job description document. The job description document provides enough information for