Saturday, February 23, 2019

What is hysteria? Discuss how hysteria was important in the origins of psychoanalysis.

IntroductionThroughout the autobiography of psychology, the terminal figure Hysteria was apply to describe symptoms of illness that were atypical to already established indispositions (Feinstein, 2011). Neuropsychiatrists of the 1800-1900s described Hysteria as an illness where dissociation occurs for reasons that be non obvious. The symptoms shown in a psychoneurotic patient are those such as anaesthesia, amnesia, abulia, motor control disorders and deepens in temperament (Haule, 1986). These symptoms are know today as a type of psychopsychoneurosis which causes emotional excitability, create emotions such as fear or panic. Disturbance of the sensory, motor and cognitive functions of humans are excessively a result of this particular neurosis (Patel, 2012). It has been argued by critics of the DSM that the condition, Hysteria, lacks validity and that the only reason why it lasted as a cat self-importancery of unsoundness throughout record is due to tradition (Feinstei n, 2011). Thus, in 1994, the DSM-IV removed rage as an established disease and divided the symptoms of the disease into twain sections now known as Somatoform Disorder and Dissociative Disorder. The issues at a lower place these two umbrella toll covered the symptoms that were accepted by the passe-partout term ferocity (Feinstein, 2011). The DSM-IV tell that the diagnoses for the conditions which lie under the umbrella terms Somatoform Disorder and Dissociative Disorder are particularly relevant to the in one case known diagnostic cat egotismries of delirium. These conditions are Somatisation Disorder, diversity Disorder and Dissociative blackout (Feinstein, 2011). Conversion Disorder was the most closely associated to the disorders that were treated by Charcot and Freud in the 1900s, and refers to symptoms that mimic neurological disorders such as motor and sensory deficits, dupery seizures and mixed stateations. These symptoms should not relate to apiece organic so urce of illness, nor be associated with substance use/abuse or the patients participation in culturally endorsed behaviours such as trances during religious ceremonies in order for them to be and lay down been diagnosed as madness (Feinstein, 2011). The aim of the present endeavor is to outline what madness was, and how it related to analysis. So, although the symptoms of frenzy are now be through damp categories of mental disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in the present day, for the purpose of this essay, the term hysteria will be used to capsulate all of the symptoms, and in order to embody the historical and contextual term whilst discussing the relevance of the condition to the origins of psychoanalysis. The literary works call downs that the causes of hysteria are linked to quondam(prenominal) traumas, conflict, undue stress such as mishap and a history of abuse (Patel, 2012). It has similarly been theorised that repression of sexual or aggressive behaviours could trigger hysteria. This idea was best conveyed through Freuds work on patient Anna O, where psychoanalysis had begun to take form. Freud had treated Anna O for symptoms of Hysteria by joining Breuers talk therapy and Charcots view of hysteria (Webster, 2004). Anna Os symptoms represented the typical manifestation of hysteria. Physical symptoms consisted of a cough, paralysis on the adept side of the body, contractures, and disturbances in vision, hearing and language. Psychological symptoms consisted of lapses in consciousness and shop hallucinations. These symptoms are similar to the modern day indicators of Conversion Disorder. Doctors found no organic cause for Anna Os symptoms, so as a result of this, she was diagnosed with hysteria. Through the work on Anna O, an outline for psychoanalysis had begun to step up (Webster, 2004). Freud continued to use the same therapeutic techniques on other patients who displayed the symptoms of hysteria, thence pitch psyc hoanalysis into full tip (Webster, 2004). The process of exploring concepts such as the unconscious, repression and intrapsychic conflict in hysterical patients aided the development of psychoanalysis. Hypnosis, directive and abreactive techniques, and an earliest form of free affiliation were used with these patients. Through these experiments Freud was able to confirm the foundation of his psychoanalytical possibleness by adding these techniques to his practice of psychoanalysis (Krohn, 1978). Freudian psychoanalytic system, and its associated practice, psychoanalysis, placed emphasis on the theory of the unconscious bear in mind. Freud had proposed that the mind was composed of three components the id, ego and superego. These components were suggested to play a important spot in the development of hysteria and are best explained through their association to the psychosexual portrays of development (Yarom, 2005). The psychosexual stratums of development encompass the Or al, Anal, phallic, Latent and genital phases. The theory pisss the outdoor constitute that the ego develops during the Oral phase, and the superego develops during the Phallic phase. The subject of hysteria has widely been studied in ego psychology and its understanding was intensify in the to a greater extent recent studies throughout the literature, as a personality disorder related to conflicts within the ego (Yarom, 2005). Psychoanalytic theory had proposed that the ego and the superego were developed by the psyche in order to put into onus some control over the libido during psychosexual development and throughout large(p) life, so that need for gratification is directed into socially acceptable ways. Freud had stated that need for gratification is associated with the different parts of the body during each stage of psychosexual development, thus the conflict between the id, ego and the superego is associated with whichever psychosexual stage the individual is at (McLeod , 2008). The conflict within the psyche at the Phallic stage is what has been theorised to bring about the Oedipus and Electra Complexes in individuals (McLeod, 2008). The suggestion do by Freud was that hysteria was associated with rejected sexuality. Freud put forward brawny references to the fe potent sexuality. This federation was made through the theory of the Electra complex in which fe manfuls are tell to have unconscious incestuous wishes and envy the penis of their male caregivers. For this reason, hysteria was a disease strongly related to women (Yarom, 2005) On the other hand, neo-Freudian approaches, such as that of Horneys (1967) suggested that penis envy should be considered as a secondary as opposed to primary phenomenon, in the sense that womens sexual identities are more center on aspirations to bear children rather than achieve orgasm. However, it may be suggested that this tranquillise provides a sexist standpoint against women as it portrays women as only being interested in strength children. Nonetheless, sexism was slowly overcome as history progressed and this was perspicuous through the circumstance that hysteria gradually became a disorder that was associated with males as well as females (Yarom, 2005). Yet contradictory literature shows studies during the 1970s which still insisted that hysteria was more prevalent among women than men, with a high comorbidity evident between sociopathy and hysteria, particularly in women (Cloninger & Guze, 1971). These findings are supported by Lerner (1974) who stated that hysteria is a disease frequently applied to women and less frequently, if never, to men. However, despite these studies showing evidence in the literature that hysteria is a female only disease, it may be suggested that the chauvinistic and old nature of society throughout history may have influenced the findings that although males may exhibit hysterical behaviours, it does not necessarily incriminate that they have th e condition hysteria. It may be the case that male researchers did not want to associate this weakness in character to the male population, then put it forth as a female only illness, maintaining the strong image of men. Secondly, since the majority of the researchers in this area of interest were males, it may also be suggested that they lacked empathy and understanding of the emotions and behaviours that females were exhibiting, thus interpreted these as more hysterical than those which the males were exhibiting. Conversely, the paper by Lerner (1974) does indicate that hysterical symptoms such as vicissitude reactions and dissociative phenomena were been observed in men, but that these patients did not display the cognitive and personality characteristics of the hysterical individual, therefore they did not have hysteria. Yet, in any case, when social and contextual situationors are taken into consideration, it brings ones upkeep to the fact that the doctors and researchers involved in studies of Hysteria were mainly male, reinforcing the notion that the literature was also dominated by observations influenced by patriarchal males. To lend excess support to this view, it was advocated that the business relationship of the prevalence of Hysteria among women on the part of psychoanalysts was focused on preoedipal and oedipal developmental tasks that must be mastered by males and females, barely the libidinal development of the two sexes only offers a partial explanation of the alleged sex differences in Hysteria, therefore it is more rational to hold the belief that social and cultural factors play a major portion in the issue (Lerner, 1974). With reference to conflict within the psyche during each psychosexual stage, the purpose of psychoanalysis was to aid the patient in bringing forward to consciousness the repressed thoughts and emotions that were associated with these phases. Resolving these conflicts would strengthen the ego (Zimberoff & Hartman , 2000).. In accord, the likelihood of developing hysteria would lessen. This is supported by the notion that tenseness during each phase relies on the way in which the ego deals with anxiety, and that hysteria is a result of manifested repression of an incompatible idea on the egos part (Vaillant, 1992). Therefore, the evidence ground on the relationship between the id, ego and superego in psychosexual stages and the development of hysteria, played a cruicial procedure as a particle accelerator in bringing the theory of psychoanalysis into practice. This is evident through the demonstration of how resolving psychosexual conflicts strengthens the ego, therefore avoiding the development of hysteria. Although the role of Hysteria in the development of psychoanalysis is clear, it must be state that the patriarchal approach taken by Freud and other researchers during the studies of Hysteria had also reflected on the theory and practice of psychoanalysis (Bernheimer & Kahane, 1985). Freuds writings were based mainly on male development (McLeod, 2008). This could imply one of two things Either that he held the belief that female development mirrored male development, or that it was inferior to male development. Hence, it is appropriate for one to question the theory that if hysteria was a female only disease, was it a mirror of male hysteriaThis could in turn imply that males were also prone to developing hysteria, therefore weakening the literature throughout history that hysteria was special(a) to females. On the other hand, it may also be suggested that if only the hysterical symptoms that were limited to men, were mirrored by women and were manifested in women as full blown hysteria, that hysteria was in fact a disease in full bloom in males as well as females. If women mirroring the behaviour of men was the case, this would suggest and further reinforce the idea that psychoanalysis the product of a patriarchal foundation, as hysteria was the catalyst whic h had patriarchal influences attached to it. As a consequence, one is left in a position to question whether studies on hysteria had influenced psychoanalysis, or whether psychoanalysis had influenced the findings and history of hysteria, as they both calculate to be partners in crime when the issue of sexism has been mentioned throughout the literature. In summary, hysteria is a set of symptoms known in the modern day as three different categories of mental disorder, classified by the DSM-IV as Somatisation Disorder, Conversion Disorder and Dissociative Amnesia. These three categories include the indicators of hysteria such as anaesthesia, amnesia, abulia, motor control disorders and changes in personality. Modern psychology suggests that hysteria is brought on through past traumas, conflict, undue stress such as bereavement and a history of abuse. However, throughout the history of psychology, it was believed that hysteria was the egos reaction to suppressed sexual or aggressive behaviours. Freud, Charcot and Breuer played significant roles in the establishment of the term hysteria, and Anna O had been the first patient to be treated for the symptoms of hysteria. Through the practice of talking therapy and free association, Freud began to establish the theory of psychoanalysis as he worked with Anna O. Theories of the unconscious mind and its components, the id, ego and superego began to emerge as Freud established their roles in the development of the human psyche. Later, hypnosis, directive and abreactive techniques, were used with Freuds patients. It was through the founding of the psychosexual stages of development that psychoanalysis began to bloom of youth in full bloom. Many doctors in the 1800-1900s had associated hysteria with females, considering it to be a womens only disease and suggesting that men merely showed symptoms of the disease not a complete case (Lerner, 1974). For this reason, Freud had suggested that the conflict of the psyche dur ing the Phallic stage, especially for females, whom struggled with penis envy, was what manifested as Hysteria at a later stage in life (Yarom, 2005). However, subsequent and more recent speculation highlighted the fact that these findings were discovered during a highly patriarchal time in history, where the medical field was widely dominated by men. Thus, it became evident that hysteria was, and still is a mental disorder found to be equally as prevalent in both men and women (Tucker, 2009). In conclusion, with respect to the essay question at hand, it was considered that hysteria was a significant foundation and catalyst for the development of psychoanalysis. However, due to the fact that hysteria itself was a flawed phenomenon in the way it was reflected throughout the literature at the time, psychoanalysis also became a skewed theory, based on patriarchal and chauvinistic theories. Nonetheless, this does not change the fact that Hysteria, and Anna O played a major role in the f ounding of psychoanalysis. Moreover, it should be considered that Hysteria is now an outdated term. The symptoms have been revise and the categories for the symptoms have been divided by the DSM, reflecting the progression that psychological literature has made since the time of Freud and psychoanalysis.ReferencesBernheimer, C. and Kahane, C. (1985). In Doras case. 1st ed. New York Columbia University Press.Clonninger, C. and Guze, S. (1970). psychiatrical Illness and Female Criminality The Role of Sociopathy and Hysteria in the antisocial Woman. American Journal of Psychiatry. 127(3), pp.303-311.Feinstein, A. (2011). Conversion disorder advances in our understanding. Canadian medical Association Journal. 183(8). 915-920.Haule J.R. (1986). Pierre Janet and dissociation the first transference theory and its origins in Hypnosis. Am J Clin Hypnosis. 29 86-94Horney, K. (1967). 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