Saturday, March 30, 2019
Unethical Advertisement in the philippines
Unethical publicizing in the philippinesFrom this phenomenon, spread abroadrs seize the opportunity to increase its profit, thus increasing competition in finding manners to enamor the heed of millions of potential consumers to buy their products. This competitive environment force per unit argonas advertisers to go beyond the tradition and find new ways to mesmerize the potential consumers. nigh of the magazine, advertisers would sacrifice ethics along the way just to reach their ending in persuading people to buy their products. til now big companies resembling McDonalds be guilty of this. McDonalds would lure kids to buy their unhealthy meal of hamburgers and soft drinks by giving away free toys when kids purchase a whole meal.Advertisement like these, which crosses the boundaries of ethics, is against consumers set. Unfortunately, present in the Philippines, nigh consumers be non sure of their right. Unlike in America and other liberal countries where til now t he commodious corporations ar non spa trigger-happy from their unjust advertisements, more(prenominal) or less Philippine consumers tend to cipher these unjust advertisements as a secern of forward motions like thither is nothing wrong with seeing women posing sexu bothy just to promote a jewelry, women and men wearing underwear lone(prenominal), products promising an exaggerated truth like a 360 degree damage control hair with in 7 days or even a peel offg influential imaged celebrities to promote alcohol. possibly the consumers be oblivious to the ethics of advertizing beca function of the majority of the Filipino consumers piece of assnot severalise ethical from wrong advertisement. This query reputation depart hope to class on the unethical denote and the status of the consumers against such(prenominal) ads. It go forth initiative define the characteristics of advertise and ethics. Then proceed to the ethical boundaries advertisers cross. To support the su ppositions of the research, there argon statistical effigys that would showcase the opinions and stands of tubing capital of the Philippines Filipino consumers on the dilemma of unethical advertisement. In this paper, the intimately sight unethical factors in the Philippines which majority, if not all, advertisements violate unity way or the other is take uping wild promises, using of mental impact on potential consumers or promoting of ruinous products.Advertising in its simplest characteristic is a medium of colloquy work step up to inform consumers ab emerge a product. Advertisers, agencies, the media and audiences be all part of a larger environment, influencing and being influenced by a network of forces that includes the economy, government, interest groups and parliamentary procedure at large (Arens, 2004, p. 55). The general atmosphere created by these external elements is the advertizing environment. This environment is a complex and ever-changing dynamo (OGuinn, Allen, Semenik, 2005, p. 125). It has developed from simple statements, in the start of advertisement existence, to a multibillion-dollar, global industry.The growth of these industries leads to the increase of consumerism which is one factor of the development of advertizement environment. The more products that argon available consecrate a greater consume for the diversity of these products to be faren, thus travel in the communication device known as publicise and the advertizement practitioner (Spence, Heekeren, 2005, p. 17). This is the importance of advertising. It is the purpose of the advertiser to communicate to the consumer that a busy brand or product is the intimately worthy of purchase and use (Bovee, 1995). Therefore, the pressure given to the advertisers by the comp both is enormous. For the positive outlook, this bad pressure for the income of the advertisers brings forth creativity in capturing the interest of consumers. At its worst, it leads to advertising campaigns that not only push the boundaries of societal acceptance only too go beyond acceptable norms, thus creating ethical problems and dilemmas.These ethical dilemmas differ in e rattling tell. This is because of the vast interpretation on what ethics is. Ethics can be simply defined as a set of prescriptive rules, precepts, values, and virtues of character that inform and guide interpersonal and intrapersonal rent that are the conduct of people toward each other and the conduct of people toward themselves (Spence, Heekeren, 2005, p. 2). If this definition taken into consideration, ethics therefore differ from the ratiocination of each individual. When the common reasoning of each individual is combined, universally accepted ethical rules and principles are apply by the majority (Jhally, 1990). This is also known as the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics would dish out in determining if the advertisement would be considered Unethical advertising is a s erious open love especially here in underpass manila paper because consumers are receptive approximately more than a hundred ads a day through different medium available. In addition, most(prenominal) thermionic tube manilla consumers barely develop a clue on unethical advertising. Therefore allowing such unprincipled acts of advertisers to continue that could eventually harm the society. after all, it has already been mentioned that advertising does deliver the power to influence each individuals ending and lifestyle and thus the whole society itself.Parent with at least one kid who is not yet of legal ageIn dissecting further, figure 1.1 scuppers the different segments of Metro Manila consumer sense on unethical advertising. As shown in the figure above, only 5% of the highschool students and college students know nothing just about unethical advertising. Meanwhile, 50 % and more of the single functional consumer and the parent consumer recognize unethical advertisin g. Therefore, it could be said that teenagers below 18 years are still partly innoncent when it comes to unethical advertising. As s wholesome up as, more than 50% of the population barely knows the essence of unethical advertising.The sensation rate mentioned above is not a good start for consumerism. It is the right of the consumers to be given correct, clear and reliable information (Bovee, Arens, 1986, p. 63). But without the consumers awareness of its right, advertisers can get away with most of the ethical dilemma. The ethical dilemma with commercial advertising of the consumers right to information, is that the persuasion, under the disguise of information, which not only deceptive, in addition, it can give way insidious consequences both for the targeted consumers as hygienic as for the community (Spence, Heekeren, 2005). Especially after the expansion of media, targeted consumers as well as the whole community are frequently exposed to advertisements which raise the probability of the occurrence of the harmful consequences. Unfortunately, an ordinary consumers cannot avoid being used to at least a thousand ads per day (Jones, 2000).Portrayed in the figure 2.1, is the opinion of Metro Manila consumers in the array of advertisements they are exposed to everyday. As, visualized in the graph, the colorize violet representing 150-200 array and the color tortoise representing 200 onwards array has a fit of 3 out of 56 participants enlisted in that cluster. While most of the consumer categories impart colors red representing 50 -100 array and green representing 100-150 array, which sums up to a total of 41 out of 56 participants claiming to shoot exposed around 50-150 ads everyday to most of the individual with no discrimination.Insofar, the figure shows that the majority of the consumers assume they are exposed to at least 50 advertisements per day. A range tremendously disdain than Jones (2000) claim of consumers exposure to a thousand advert isements. The cause of such claim that most consumers are exposed to a high number of advertisements is advertisers are very skillful in creating advertisements that will be in free sight of the consumers in their everyday hassle in life, to give it an requisite characteristic. Consumers are so well-researched and targeted that they can be covertly seduced by a strategy that surrounds them and that infiltrates their physical and mental space, often without their realization (OGuinn, Allen, Semenik, 2005, p. 88). Hence, most Metro Manila consumers lose track of the number of advertisements they are exposed to, accept its less than 200 and not otherwise.Thus, an ordinary individual is bombarded with more exquisite communication than they can handle and most of the quantify without their knowledge. This frequency of esthetical communication existing creates a clutter which is a barrier to impressive communication (Parker, 2006, p. 44). This is the reason why advertisers think o utside of the box for a breakthrough possibility. In order to stay competitive in this clutter up media landscape, the architects of advertising need to be creating advertising that does not look, feel, smell or taste like the generic advertising that the new media-savvy and sophisticated consumers have become used to (Spence, Heekeren, 2005, p. 17). To achieve that goal, advertisers try to find effective carry of communication. From tralatitious channels of TV, radio, posters and newspapers, advertisers embrace the new medium of communication, technologies such as internet and other digital media. Although being in the third existence country like Philippines, the traditional medium is still thriving.Represented in figure 3.1, Metro Manila consumers are exposed to different types of advertising medium frequently. As interpreted by the graph, the predominant medium that most Metro Manila consumers are exposed to is TV leading by 9 marks against billboard the 2nd dominant advert ising medium. bankers bill that through out the different categories of consumers printed ads like posters, flyers and brochures are low. It might also the factor that billboards and TV are almost unavoidable compared to brochures and flyers. So this shows that traditional advertising communication like TV in the Philippines is still a fad. Though, new approaches like online advertisements are still progressing.These three figures that were just shown exhibit the demographics of the Metro Manila consumers in relation to advertising and its ethics. With the results shown Metro Manila consumers need some consumer rights educational background to help understand what the advertisers are getting away with. Out of the two-digit estimate of ethical issues the advertisers face, three usually violated are unrealistic promises, use of psychological impact and promotion of harmful product (Spence, Heekeren, 2005). These ethical issues are evident almost everywhere, including the Philippine s. later all, advertising addresses people primarily as consumers creating a similar advertising environment almost everywhere (Schultz, 1990, p. 28).The first and most obvious unethical line most advertisers cross without second thoughts is claiming unrealistic promises. One of the most common short-term arguments about advertising is that it is so frequently deceptive. For advertising to be effective, consumers must have confidence in it. So any gracious of deception not only detracts from the complete information principle of free enterprise but also risks being self-defeating (Bovee, Arens, 1986, p. 68). A most common example seen by the majority is whitening selection Use this product and get whiter skin in just 7 days This whitening cream advertisement gave a promise of whiter skin in just 7 days without genuine evidence of its claim. This kind of deception may profit traffic firms in the short-term but create a greater harm in the long-run (Lane, Russell, 2001). For the short-term, consumers will purchase the product, but once they figured it is ineffective the purchasing will stop and the sales will go down.Advertisement does not have to be literally true, but an advertisement that is knowing to deceive or mislead a consumer is a different matter (Belch, Belch, 2007, p. 224). This is the situation in which the use of puffery in advertising comes under inquiry. Puffery, which is a common reading in advertising, is not considered illegal in most countries even here in the Philippines. This is because puffery is an packion of opinion not made as a representation of a fact (Bovee, Arens, 1986, p. 57). It is the key reason why consumers have the expectation that advertising will spread the truth rather than deport the truth.Shown in figure 4.1 is the perspective of Metro Manila consumers on the categories of unethical advertising. As measured in the graph above, advertising on harmful product and exaggerated truths are ranked 1st and 2nd place as the most viewed unethical course in advertising. From a total of 56 consumers who answered the cogitation, 55 considered exaggerated truths as unethical and 49 considered ads on harmful products are unethical. Confirming, that most consumers, even in Metro Manila, does have the expectation that advertising will stretch the truth rather than express the truth.A dilemma such as this exists because of no legally riding horse against it. Stated in The Law on Obligations and Contracts under Title 2 Contracts, Chapter 2 Essential Requisites of Contracts, Section 1 Consent, Article 1340, is The usual exaggerations in trade, when the other party had an opportunity to know the facts are not in themselves fraudulent (De Leon, 2003, p. 128). Explained by De Leon (2003), it is the natural tendency for advertisers to resort to exaggerations in their set out to make a reasonable profit of the business firm. Customers are pass judgment to know how to take care of their concerns and to rely own independent judgment. Anyone who relies on said exaggerations does so at his own risk. So in essence, the capriciousness of puffery refers to exaggerated claims, comments, commendations, or hyperbole for consumers to based on their own unobjective views and opinions. It is generally considered to be part of the artfulness and playfulness of advertising and should not be taken seriously by reasonably consumers (Jones, 2000, p.86).For the second ethical issue the advertisers trespass is playing mind games with the target consumers by using psychological impact on them. It has already been established that the role of advertising is to creatively show potential consumer products or services in a way that persuades them to buy or at least feel positive towards those products or services. Advertising also often seeks to persuade primarily by an magic spell to sentiment rather by an apostrophize to intellect (Schultz, 1990, p.32). nigh examples are advertisements that associate p roducts with feelings of well-being, fun, humor, freedom, romance, glamour loved ones and such. Gigantic industries like Coca-cola, Pepsi and McDonalds could be observed using such types of ads internationally. Even though these advertisements are said to appeal the consumers adroitly and emotionally, advertising cannot create primary demand in advanced product categories (OGuinn, Allen, Semenik, 2005, p. 125). This theory is also agreed upon by the Metro Manila consumers in their survey.*5 being the highestFigure 5.1 has a graph about the belief of Metro Manila consumers on how advertisements influence their decisions. As turn out in the figure, there are more than 50% of the participants in the high-school category who answered 4 and 3 compared to the other categories where at least 50% of their participants answered 2 and 1. This could mean that younger participants are more influenced to ads compared to adults. Therefore advertisements appealing to intellectual are effective especially to the innocent consumers.So, in those cases, the ads are not intended as true representations of reality or as narratives that stand for to the truth, but rather as rhetorical and metaphorical evocations that are designed to appeal to the consumers emotions and aspirations for the purpose of creating positive and alluring images for the products in the minds of the consumers (Lane, Russell, 2001, p. 91). Therefore, truth could be simply not relevant in advertisements. Seventy-four percent of American consumers either strongly or somewhat strongly believe that most advertisements deliberately stretch the truth about the products they advertise, claims Jhally (1990, p. 103). This statistics would not really move most consumers, since advertising is a form communication that does its best to stretch the truth in order to create some profit. As communication genre, it wants you to believe and dispel belief in the same breath (Burton, Purvis, 1991, p. 23).The go away li ne advertisers cross to earn millions, is accepting assignments in which harmful products are to be advertised. In particular, advertising for alcohol and tobacco products have been a controversy in most countries claiming to encourage consumers to use unhealthy products. Some countries, such as Canada, Finland and Philippines, have completely banned keister companies from advertising their product. While other countries, such as United States and Australia are very successful in anti smoking campaigns in which cigarette advertising is not entirely banned but all public places are banned from smoking (Arens, 2004). The government does possess the right to intercede, when it believes it needs to, in order to restore a health environment for the majority. In most advertising environments, administrators have embraced what they label a self-regulatory model, in effect establishing a situation in which the industry or profession is doing the regulating with alter degrees of contributi on from other stakeholders, including the government (Burton, Purvis,1991, p. 12). In the Philippines, the government, employing Burton, Purvis self-regulatory model, utilized its power in banning cigarette advertisements. Such action is required by the government, the reducing if not absolute elimination, for the benefit of the majority in the society.Exhibited in figure 6.1 are the responses Metro Manila consumers on government banning cigarette companies to advertise. As, portrayed above, around 55% do agree that cigarette companies should be banned in advertising. While around 5% disagree with the majority. The chaff is in figure 4.1 49 out of 56 believes that it is unethical for advertisers to advertise harmful products while in this figure only 32 out of 56 believes that cigarette ads should be banned.Advertisements such as these should be in effect self-regulated. Effective self-regulation calls for the development of a commitment to the wider community, no just to a busin ess firms consumers. In this regard, a process of consultation between industry, consumers and government is established as each has a role to play to make the system work (Belch, Belch, 2007, p. 89). Government offers a public policy perspective, whereas business firms offer the alternative view to a regulatory environment (Burton, Purvis,1991). Consumers enter are just as important in order to follow relevance and confidence in the system. Especially now, where the advertising industry gets intense in competing for consumers limited resource of time by seizing their attention to withhold interest in the advertised product, ignoring the moral obligation they have as advertisers to the consumers. Therefore, in this immense competition there is a take chances that most, if not all, advertisements have already cross the border of ethics.This research paper has discussed on unethical advertising in the Philippines. Unfortunately, in-depth discussion on the Filipino consumers persp ective on ethics, advertising strategies and theories practiced in the Philippines and rules and issues of unethical advertising present in the Philippines has not been fulfilled. This is because of the very few past researches through with(p) in this topic. The lack of sources on Filipino consumers perspective of ethics gave need of conducting surveys, which results are shown in the figures presented in this paper. However, the sampled used in the survey is not big enough giving a possibility on a significant error percentage. In addition, the survey has not been conducted throughout Metro Manila, the heart of Philippines commerce, but just a part of Metro Manila. So the survey reference is not enough for more in-depth discussion on the issues where the line of ethics would be drawn for Filipino consumers.For the advertising strategies conducted, theories practiced, rules enforced and issues seen on unethical advertising in the Philippines discussed in this paper, the references used were scripted by foreign authors with a very credible background. They wrote regarding on advertising theories, examples, issues and ideals based on the western countries. Regrettable, most of the authors have not conducted researches on the advertising scenario in the Philippines. Although, some theories are applicable everywhere, the culture and sparing position of the Philippines is really different from the western. This research paper selected references consisting of theories applicable ubiquitously so that it could be used to study unethical advertising in the Philippines.Furthermore, the time allotted for this research paper was very limited for a more extensive research. With a two month time allotment, not all useful resources were gathered. Resources were limited to the books available at the university library. Likewise, the time allotted for the survey was approximately two days. Consequently, not much respondents were sought in a very short period, sacrificing th e accuracy of the results.The recommendation to improve the credibility of the research paper due to lack of written resources is interviewing credible persons. A well-renowned Filipino anthropologist may give answers on the culture of ethics in the Philippines. another(prenominal) recommended interviewee are marketing or advertising managers, because they have put into practice the theories and understood which one is applicable in the Philippines.Although, there is lacking written resources about unethical advertising, written resources should not be entirely forgone. Resources such as Advertising Ethics by Spence, E., Heekeren, B. V. and International advertising Realities and myths by Jones, J. P. , are needed for conducting this study. These resources would greatly help in building the root word for this research.With the interview and written resources, the survey should also be a part of the research. This research method would gather information from the individual direct ly rent in the research at hand. It would be best if more time is allotted here, to disperse the survey form different parts of the Philippines or at least the Metro Manila and to increase the number of respondents for humiliate statistical percentage error of the survey.Over all, the existence of unethical advertising is evident everywhere even here in the Philippines. It is evidently seen in the unrealistic promises made by business firm to promote sales. Even harmful products are being advertised without shame just to profit. The advertisers are also becoming masters in playing with the minds of their potential consumers. This psychological impact on consumers particularly on children is shamelessly used even by big companies like McDonalds. Consumers at the very least should be aware of these unethical strategies.