Wednesday, April 3, 2019
Analysis Of The Cuban Missile Crisis History Essay
Analysis Of The Cuban Missile Crisis History Essay mental institutionThe Cuban Missile Crisis was an event occurred in October 1962 when the the States detected that the USSR had positioned average work rockets in Cuba, which was ninety miles forth from Florida. It was the period that the cold struggle takeed its peak beca use of goods and services of the possible confrontation amidst the deuce superpowers, the US and the USSR, at the time. The Cuban Missiles Crisis was a very importeeant part of the world tale because of the risk of atomic struggle that could bleed to the destruction of the world. on that pointfore, it is very riveting to identify what happen before the crisis, the causes, the actual events in the crisis, and the impacts of the crisis (Rich 2003, 416-428).Prior to the CrisisThe Cuban Revolution, began in 1956, was the outcome of extensive sparing oppression of Cuba by the regular army. During Batistas, the unmerciful ruler of Cuba, regime, Cuba per capita income was twice greater than some other(prenominal) countries in general. The Cuban deliverance was controlled by the ground forces, which owned 90% of Cubas telephone and electronic services, 50% of Cubas railway, and 40% of Cubas sugar production ( bunsson 1965,p 443). Further much, the the States put a very unyielding controlled on Cuban sugar production. The USA also controlled Cuban import quota, divided lands in to estates, and forced the Cuban farmers to grow monoculture crop, which was sugar (Dye Sicotte 2011, p.674). These USAs investments in Cuba were large. By the end of Batistas rule, Cuba had the highest investment from the USA than any other countries in Latin America at that time thus, Cubas per capital income was the highest in Latin America (Johnson 1965, p. 445). However, the distribution of wealth was not equally distributed. The studyity of flock were illiterate, and the mortality rate was very high because the health care musical arrangement was not extended to the poor in the rural areas, who re importanted in poverty (Mabry 2003). Further more, Batista was a corrupted dictator, and a pro western ruler. These semipolitical and economic oppressions from Batiste and the USA inspired Fidel Castro, the charismatic revolution leader, to revolt for reforms (Rich 2003, p. 417).Between 1956 to 1959, Fidel Castro, Ernesto Che Guevera, and his junior brother Rual used the tactic Guerilla warfare to fight against Batistas armament at Mount Sierra Maestra in Cuba where he gained support from the local framers. The guerrilla warfare proved to be successful. On January 1959, Castro and his troops were up to(p) to overthrown Batista and his government activity. later the overthrown of Batista government, Fidel Castro set up a rear government consisted of major Cuban political figures. Still, the majority of power was in the hand of Castro. When the shadow government failed to put forward his reforms, he dismissed them, and took control of the government as he appointed himself Cubas prime minister (Rich 2003, p 418).deuce months aft(prenominal) the victory of the Guerrilla force, Castro paid his first visit to the USA where his story was romanticized by the media. He was supposed to score a clashing with Eisenhower however, the President refused to have a meeting with him, and went to the golf court. He was accommodated by Nixon, who was the vice president at that time. During the meeting, he refused to accept USA financial support because he believed that it would continue the USA influence in Cuba. later Castro visited the USA, the relation between the USA and Cuba began to declination (Rich 2003, 419). One month after the visit, Fidel Castro began his reforms. He nationalized Cuban lands, cattle ranch, bank, railroads, oil, and other utilities, which were once owned by the USA (Perez 2011, p. 230-231).On the other hands, the relation between the Cuba and the USSR had pose more dynamic. In prono unce to reach economic independency from the USA, Castro good turned to the USSR for support. As a result, in 1960, Cuba sell with the USA declined to 0% while, trade with the USSR change magnitude to 43% (Leogrande Thomas 2002, p 325-363).The bespeak of Pig InvasionThe embayment of Pig Invasion, January 3, 1961, was the CIAs plan to overthrown Castro government by launching thousand of Cuban exiles on Cubas Bay of Pigs believing that only thousand of trained exiles would be able to overthrown Castro government. However, the mission was a total failure because the Cuban array was already waiting for the Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs. As a result, one hundred people were killed and thousands of people were taken as political prisoners. The Bay of Pigs invasion was the last Eisenhower administration plan, which took action during Kennedy presidency (Rich 2003,p. 420). on that point were several(prenominal) reasons for the causes of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. However, the main reason was the US insecurity of its decline in Latin America domination. The USA based their form _or_ system of government on Latin America polity accordingly to the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the USA moldiness contain its influence in the Latin America (Perez 2011, P.233). In other words, the idea that the communist Cuba could influence other Latin America countries to transfigure their political systems to communism was intolerable for the USAs standard (Ferguson 1961, 288-290).CausesThe Soviet Unions Hidden AgendasThere were several reasons for the USSR to installed projectile in Cuba. concord to Khrushchev, his two main motives were to equilibrize the missile gap between the USA and the USSR, and to prevent any set ahead America invasion on Cuba (Cimbala 1999, p. 199). Khrushchev believed that the only way to prevent Cuba from the USA invasion was to install missiles in Cuba (Allyn et al 1989-1990, p.138). He believed that it would protect the Cuban national pride . Moreover, in 1959, the US installed Jupiter and Thor missiles, intermediate-range ballistic missiles, in Turkey, which pointed today at the USSR. Furthermore, during the 50s and the 60s the US had advanced the USSR in terms of the arm race, therefore, Khrushchev inflexible to position missiles in Cuba as a mean(a) to for the USSR to reach symmetry with the USA, which would leave him with negotiation power for the missile trade. He wanted to propose to US that the USSR would remove missiles from Cuba if the USA would remove missiles from Turkey (Allyn, Blight Welch 1989-1990, p.139). His motive to reach symmetry in terms of arm race with the USA could be seen as a mean for the USSR to boost its nation prestige. If the USA could deploy missiles in Turkey and Italy, the USSR could also deploy missiles in Cuba, which was ninety miles away from the USA (ibid).Nevertheless, President John F. Kennedy already planned to remove the Jupiter missiles from Turkey. (Berstein 1980, p. 1 20-121). Thus, there should be hidden agendas under Khrushchevs actions. According to many American scholars, the deployment of missiles in Cuba were Khrushchevs plans to test USA reaction for future war, to demonstrate the USSR nuclear transcendency to the Soviet and Chinese governments, to persuade the USA that the arm race was useless, and to change magnitude Khrushchev popularity at home and in the Communist bloc, so that he could have freedom to reduce USSR arm built (Cimbala 1999, p. 199).Cuban insecurityThe main reason for Cuba agreement on the installation of missile with the USSR was its insecurity. After the Bay of Pig Invasion in 1961, the CIA tackd many assassin plots on Fidel Castro. According to the BBC, the CIA and the Cuban exiles came up with more than 600 plots to assassinate him. The plots varied from poisoning, car bombs, to massive underwater explosion. The suspects involved in the plot varied from the mafias to one of Castros ex lovers (Campbell 2009, n.d.). One of the assassination plots that actually took place was a strafe in Havana hotel by Alpha 66, which killed several Cubans and Soviet technicians (Brenner 1990, p.121). On the said(prenominal) hand, the USA began a serious trade embargo against Cuba. If other countries trade with Cuba, they would not receive financial aids from the USA. The Cuban government hatfuled the USs policy as a mean to change the Castro government by weakening Cubas economy (Brenner 1990, p. 188). Moreover, the Cuban intelligent discovered that the CIA planed another invasion on Cuba, Operation Mongoose, which would be more substantial than the previous invasion. In order for the Cuban government to protect Cuba sovereignty, they believed that they need legions aids from the USSR (Brenner 1990, p. 189). Therefore, Castro decided to let the USSR installed missiles on their island.The Crisis and the ResolutionIn 1962, the USSR sent a incumbrance ship to Cuba. The ship carried sixty missiles with forty launchers, and 40,000 Soviet technicians for the deployment of middle range missiles in Cuba (Kozak 2009, p. 19). On October 14, the U-2, USA spy plane, spotted missiles in Cuba, which pointed directly to the US. The US intelligent informed the President on October 17 (Berstein 1980, p.9). After the President was informed, there was a meeting between President John F. Kennedy and the EXCOMM, the Committee of the national Security. Many plans were proposed during the meeting. One of the most obvious plans was the abstract to use picnic strike to remove missiles from Cuba. However, Robert Kennedy, John F. Kennedys younger brother, certified the President not to use air strike because there was no way to guarantee that the air strike could remove all of the missiles from Cuba. If the air strike could not remove all missiles from Cuba, it would give the Cubans time to deploy missiles against the USA. Similarly to the air strike, any military strikes against the Cuban could lead the Cubans to deploy missiles against the USA. Therefore, President Kennedy and his advisors came up with the naval blockade method as a way to deal with the Cubans (Rich 2003, p. 422).On October 22 John F. Kennedy announced to the media that the Cubans had deployed missiles against the USA with the aid from the USSR. He informed the media of the quarantine, naval blockade, as a mean to bloc USSR ship that carried missile to Cuba, and if the USSR did not turn or incorporate its cargo ships from entering Cuba, there would be consequences (Weimasma, Larson 1997, p. 13). However, the USSRs cargo ships did not turn back, but its cargo ships did not break the USA quarantine. It seemed that the confrontation between the USSR and the US could happen anytime (Weimasma, Larson 1997, p. 13). Nevertheless, from October 22 to 28, President JFK and Chairman Khrushchev centrald several garner. Kennedy received Khrushchevs second letter on October 26. The letter proposed that the USSR would remove missiles from Cuba if the USA outback(a) the Jupiter missiles from Turkey and, and that JFK must make a promise in front of the public that the USA would never invade Cuba (Thinkquest Cuban missile crisis letters, 1997). On October 27, one day after Khrushchev second letter was sent, the USs U-2 plane was shot down in Cuba. This act was seen by some of American politician as an invitation to start war. This is the quote from Secretary of Defense McNamara This agent war with the Soviet Union. However, because of the secret meeting between Robert Kennedy and Soviet ambassador Dobrynin, the situation was able to cool down. Robert Kennedy assured that the President would remove the missiles in Turkey (Weimasma, Larson 1997, p. 21) On October 28, JFK sent Khrushchev another letter proposed that in exchange for the USSR to uninstall missiles from Cuban soil within the UN inspection, the USA would never invade Cuba, and secretly uninstall missiles from Turkey. Khrushchev accepted the p roposal from President Kenndy thus, both countries were able to resolve their conflicts. In essence, the Cuban Missile Crisis was able to resolve because the USA accepted the USSR proposal. It removed missiles from Turkey, and made a public announcement that it would never invade Cuba. On the same hand, Khrushchev accepted the USA proposal, and uninstalled missiles from Cuba within inspectors from UN observation (Thinkquest Cuban missile crisis letters, 1997). Nevertheless, JFKs motives to secretly remove of the missiles in Turkey and Italy should be emphasized. Why would he need to do it secretly? According to many scholars, he was numb of national resistance from the government and the American citizens as well as losing support from them (Weimasma, Larson 1997, p. 23).ImpactsThe Cuban Missiles Crisis left several impacts on the USA and the USSR conflicting policy. The first impact was the increase in communication between the US and the USSR. Because of the crisis, both superp owers had realized that they needed to improve communication between the two countries to prevent any forms of crisis from occurring again (Rich 2003, p.425). As a result, a hotline was installed between the USAs president and the USSRs chairman (ibid). Moreover, because of the potential confrontation between the two superpowers, which could lead to nuclear war, President Kennedy began to favor the idea of coexistence (Billingsley, p.6). Therefore, after the crisis, there was a temporary period of dtente, the period that the cold war vex cools down (Billingsley p.7). In addition, in August 5, 1963, the USA and the USSR both gestural the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The agreement forbidden the testing of nuclear weapons on the earth surface, space, and underwater (Rich 2003, p.427). However, the treaty itself was futile because it did not bank check the built up of nuclear weapons, and prevent China from obtaining the nuclear weapons on the following year (Rich 2003, p. 428). Subseque ntly, the USA and the USSR continue the arm race for another twenty five years. They also competed in terms of strategic gaining (Billingsley p.6). Furthermore, the treaty caused the relation between the USSR and China to decline. Because of the treaty, China concluded that the USSR was being weak, and more importantly, sold its soul to the capitalist camp. Hence, China broke out from the USSRs shaft of light of influence and gained the status of superpower by itself. This caused the balance of power to become imbalance (Rich 2003, p. 428). After the Cuban Missile Crisis, most of the USs oversea policy was focused on the Americanization of Vietnam and the Vietnam War, which required full attention from the USA military resources (Rich 2003, p. 423).ConclusionIn conclusion, the major events prior to the Cuban Missile Crisis were the Cuban Revolution, and the Bay of Pigs Invasion. The main causes of the crisis were the Soviet Union hidden agendas and the Cuban insecurity, which was c aused by the United States of America. During the crisis, President John F. Kennedy and Chairman Khrushchev exchanged many letters before the resolution could be made. The period of the crisis was the period that the cold war reached its peak because both superpowers almost confront each other. If they had confronted each other, the use of nuclear weapons could have happened. After the crisis, the USSR removed missiles from Cuba under the UN supervision in exchanged for the USA to remove the Jupiter missiles in Turkey, and to never invade Cuba. The impacts of the Cuban Missile Crisis were the improvement in communication between the USA and the USSR. A hot line was established between both countries leaders. Moreover, President Kennedy began to view the USA relationship with the USSR in terms of coexistence. As a result, there was a period of detente, and agreement of the Nuclear Test Treaty Ban, which was sign by the USA and the USSR. However, the nuclear competition still continu ed for the attached 25 years. Furthermore, both countries began the competition in the new area, which was the strategic competition.