Tuesday, April 2, 2019
The Theories And Implications On Corporate Financial Decisions Finance Essay
The Theories And Implications On Corporate Financial Decisions Finance EssayThis piece concerns mainly on exploring the atomic number 18a of corpo trustworthy military rank models and their implications in assessing the harbor of somatic theaters. The models to be reviewed and realized atomic number 18 Economic tax Added (EVA), chapiter Asset Pricing exercise (CAPM) and abandon hard currency Flow (FCF). The selected models would be use on 5 in public listed signs in the Bursa Malaysia. The aim of this field is to analyze the trinity models on how it bed be implementd in servicinging a potent to give, sustain and access its corporate nurture. This teach consists of six parts, which are introduction, literature review, importance of theories and its implications on corporate monetary decisions in Malaysia, application of concepts, tenets, fundamentals, technical issues, etc to the five chosen firms, methodology to analyze 5 years financial data of the sele cted firms and conclusion.IntroductionIn this paper, three corporate valuation models postulate been chosen as our main concern, which are Economic Value Added (EVA), roof Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and Free Cash Flow (FCF). We then apply the selected valuation models and methodologies to five publicly listed firms in the Bursa Malaysia from the food and beverage industry. The five companies are Dutch bird Milk Industries, Fraser Neave Holdings Berhad, Nestle Ltd, QSR Brands Bhd and Yeo Hiap Seng (M) Berhad. Summary result be make by reviewing ten journal articles under the literature review part for a preliminary understanding of the models. This paper includes four journal articles for EVA as wellhead as an different s purge journal articles for FCF and CAPM. In addition, we will happen upon the importance of the theories and describe its implication on corporate financial decisions in Malaysia. This study has provided us a great learning opportunity by accessing the c any er value of the real corporate firms. It also provides us a learning platform in how to utilize the valuation beasts to valuate companys transaction for enthronement purpose in the approaching.Literature refreshEconomic Value Added (EVA)Economic Value Added (EVA) is a corporate valuation tool positive by Stern Stewart Co. to assist conductors in their decision making by incorporate two basic rule of finance inside. The start-off principle is the financial goal of any company for shareholders wealth maximization and the scrap base one is that a companys corporate value is base on the achievement to which investors expect future earnings to exceed or fall defraud of the personify of capital of the United States. A nonher way to explain is that, EVA is true to align decisions with shareholders wealth. agree to Stewarts study in 1994, it is proved that EVA as the single best tool of measuring wealth creation on a contemporaneous arse and the result in describing chan ges in shareholders wealth is ab protrude 50 portion wear out than its greatest accountancy-based rival of EPS, draw on Asset (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE). EVA model assist managers in better investing decisions making, to identify improvement opportunities as well as to consider the short-term and long-term benefits for a firm.Based on Taubs study in 2003, it is observes that roughly of the valuation models used among industries focus only on the financial or accounting information. Un exchangeable EVA, it combines incidentors identical accounting, mart and economy information in a companys s set evaluation. Various studies ca-ca proved the superiority of use EVA over other traditional models for evaluate companys surgical operation repayable to its transparentness and capacity to obtain to a greater extent important information.According to Kudla and Arendts study in 2000, EVA gutter eliminate the arising infringes and confusion when a company employs multiple measures like EPS, Return on Investment (ROI), Return on Equity (ROE) and kale direct attain after Tax (NOPAT). Furthermore, EVA can also be used as a tool to eliminate sparing distortions of habitual Accepted Accounting Practice (GAAP) to focus decisions on the actual economic give awaycomes. It promotes better evaluation of decisions that have an impact on the income statement and equaliser sheet or trade-offs amid each other. Also, EVA managed to cover every scenery of the managerial cycle through the use of the capital charge a shed light onst NOPAT. there are also studies indicate that EVA is a superior measure of the managerial decisions quality. From Fishers study in 1995, EVA is suggested to be treated as a undeviating pointer in estimating a firms value growth in the future. Also, match to Sterns study in 1989, the purpose of EVA is to change the oversight behavior as well as their performance, leading managers to act in the owners interest. It can be used as a motivation tool to encourage managers to create shareholder value by being a basis for counseling compensation.Importance of the theories and implications on corporate financial decisions in MalaysiaAs championship grows wider and complex across the border, there is a film for better valuation tool to evaluate the performance of the moving in. It is important to adopt more advance(a) performance metrics so that the companys management behaviors can be about monitored to achieve the goal of maximizing the shareholders benefits. It is also important to access a firms value for any decision making regarding business blowup or contraction. According to the article of The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA), Latest Trends in Corporate Performance Measurement (1992), many companies were experiencing difficulties in implementing measurement frameworks and these statements have been brought to today. there is a study conducted by Dr. Issham Ismail in Malaysia with the purpose to examine the human relationship between EVA and the company performance in Malaysia. The study indicates that EVA has a strong relationship with hold remember as compared to other measures due to its focus on long-term performance. EVA enhances stock performances by including more informational kernel in describing the stock returns. According to the study, EVA is considered as a better alternating(a) to other traditional valuation tools such as EPS, ROE, etc. Its sign of transparency and capacity to provide more important information helps investors in Malaysia to make better enthronement decision as well as the resources allocations decisions. in addition that, EVA and MVA can be also treated as performance measures and signals for any strategic change (Lehn and Makhija, 1996). in that respect is another study conducted by Norfarah, Suhaila and Wan Mansor in Malaysia regarding the adoption of EVA on real estate corporations in Malaysia. In Malaysia, real est ate sectors have grown to become a huge sector and affect to develop for the last(prenominal) two decades even through difficult economic period. Some has been performing well in the industry such as IOI Properties and Boustead Properties Bhd while almost of them are experiencing austereness like Country Heights, Land General, and Damansara Realty. In order to identify the company capability of adding more shareholders value, an alternative corporate valuation model has been introduced, which is EVA, proposed by Stern Stewart Management Services. The adoption of EVA is considered to be more comprehensive as its measurement tool provides a clearer picture of whether a business is nurture or reducing shareholder wealth. Most of the multinational companies such as Sony, Coca-Cola and Monsanto have formally announced their adoption and implementation of EVA as management systems in their quest of the value.On the other hand, EVA based performance blueprint make grows positive result towards a company management. There is a study on the nitty-grittys of adopting management bonus plans based on ease income measures. According to Wallaces study in 1997, EVA based performance plan motivates managers to utilize companys assets in a more productive and efficient way. This hence, reduce of the conflict between managers and shareholders interest and the decreasing agency price eventually help the company to boost its profit after the adoption of the residual income based incentives plans. As a result, EVAs superiority is proved in encouraging managers for shareholder wealth creation. However, in order to work out the EVA compensation system, it requires large commutation effort and extensive training for both managers and their subordinates. Lastly, EVA and its practical applications as a management control system for performance measurement which helps manager to make better investment decisions.MethodologyEconomic Value Added is an evaluation tools used to examine a companys true economic profitability because it factors in net operating income after taxes interest minus the opportunity cost of capital deployed to earn that net operating income. In other words, EVA tells whether a companys financial performance is higher or lower than the minimum require rate of return for shareholders or business lenders. Besides that, EVA also tells investors if their pith of invested capital in the business is providing them a higher return than their minimum, or if it is better to shift their capital elsewhere.There are few steps required in calculating EVA and this is how Economic Value Added (EVA) is used by the financial analysts. Annual reports from the five selected firms have been sourced respectively in this report. original of all, we have to identify the earnings in the beginning interest and tax (EBIT) from the income statement. adjacent we have to suppose the straighten out operational Profit after Taxes (NOPAT) by deducting t he Income Tax Expenses from the EBIT. Afterwards, we command to determine the invested capital deployed in the business by deducting Non-interest expression Current Liabilities from Total Assets. Then, we need to calculate the Weighted bonny Cost of with child(p) (WACC) utilise the superior Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). WACC metric by adding stimulate Free Rate with Beta manifold by market place run a put on the line Premium, where Market Risk Premium is mensural by deducting Risk Free Rate from Market Return. Take WACC regurgitate with the Invested Capital and finally, EVA can be found by deducting the multiplication of WACC and Invested Capital from the Net operational Profit after Tax.The weighing formulas for EVA are as followsEVA = NOPAT (WACC * Invested Capital)where,NOPAT = Profit Lost Before Interest and Tax Income Tax Expensesand,Invested Capital = Total Assets Non-interest look Current Liabilitiesand,Cost of Equity, WACC is calculated by using CAPM Mode lwhere,WACC = Risk Free Rate + ( Beta * Market Risk Premium )where,Market Risk Premium = Market Return Risk Free RateFree Cash FlowLiterature recapitulationFree funds be given (FCF) refers to the silver generated by the assets of the business getable for distribution to all the shareholders and it cant be affected by the businesss capital structure. A firms stock value is calculated by projecting the future big notes judgment of conviction period (FCF) that will be generated by the business assets and then compute the donation value of FCF by discounting them at the subdue required rate of return. FCF appeared to be an appropriate valuation model to be used when (1) the firm doesnt pay dividends at all or pays out lesser dividends than dictated by its cash flow, (2) abandon cash flow tracks profitability or (3) the analyst takes a corporate control perspective. The present value of FCF is the most fundamentally useful valuation tool used in assisting any investing decis ions like investment opportunities appraisal and corporate valuation (Arumugam, 2007). It can also be used to measure the potential of investment opportunities as well as to forecast the firms future performance by accessing its corporate value.Based on an article written by Ben Lardes in March 2010, a companys free cash flow reflects a lot of information about the company performance. Obviously the higher the free cash flow of a business is, the more funds you can expect to earn as the businesss shareholder. Every firm has different FCF, which is depends on how well is their performance over the periods. For instance, a well performing firm may have a sincere amount of positive cash flows. On the contrary, a firm may not have a positive cash flow at all if it has been struggling to succeed. A firm will have a negative FCF if its expenses are exceed its income. By looking at the FCF, a company can see whether to go on with its current business direction or to change its manageme nt operation. However, negative FCF does not always signify problems within a business. The negative FCF may be due to the preparation of business expansion in the future. The age of a company and its circumstances should always be in the consideration before judging it purely based on its free cash flow.According to the study conducted by McClure, although FCF has its merits, it still has some limitations and the most significant one would be the garbage in, garbage out principle. Predicted FCF is used as the main input in DCF calculation to evaluate any investment decisions, thus the quality of FCF is very important in the valuation process in order to get an appropriate and bona fide outcome. If all the FCF values have found to be inaccurate, then it will be useless in assessing the firms stock price. Therefore, the ability to make honorable future projections of FCF is critical. The more you confident about the future cash flow, the better project evaluation you can made, lead ing to a desirable profit from your investment. In this case, the forecast of potential cash flow appeared to be the attention-getting part, as you are required to prepare a full financial model to get a better estimation. This requires some serious epitome of the business, the macro-economic environment, the legal and regulatory framework and the competitive landscape (Cartmail, 2010).Importance of the Theories Implications on Corporate Financial Decisions in MalaysiaInvesting decisions can be made based on a simple analysis like selecting your propensity firm with a product you expect to have high demand in the future. The underlying expectation is that the company will continue to produce and sell high-demand products and will generate cash flow back to the business. The second part is that the companys management will know where to spend this cash to continue its operations whereas the third assumption is that all of these anticipate future cash flows are worth more today t han the stocks current price.Free cash flow (FCF) tracks the remaining operating cash flow for the shareholders after laying out the specie a firm required to expand or sustain its asset base. It is important as it allows business to pursue more opportunities that could enhance shareholders value. Present value of all free cash flows is the draw indicator of a firms equity value. The growing FCF is ofttimes a feeler to amplification profits. Firms that facing surging FCF as a result of receipts growth, debt elimination, improvement of operational efficiency and others, can reward their investors tomorrow. Thats the drive investors nurse FCF as a sound valuation metric. The odds are good when a firms FCF is increasing, it is believed that the firms share value will soon be increased as well. An important thing to note is that, negative FCF is not rubber in itself, however it could represent a sign that a firm is engaging in large investments (Investopedia, n.d.).DCF is one of the favorable and sound tools to be used in corporate valuation because it can produce outcome, which has the virtually-hauled value to an intrinsic stock value. Unlike other valuation tools like P/E ratio, DCF analysis relies on FCF. It is believed that FCF reflects a clearer view of a firms ability in generating cash, as profits can some clippings be clouded by accounting tricks, but cash flow cannot. The tenableness is because cash flow generation is hardly to be influenced by accounting assumptions and habituates. Also, FCF is a trustworthy measure that eliminates most of the arbitrariness and guesstimates found in reported profits (Investopedia, n.d.). Other than that, FCF can be considered as a forward-looking metric because it depends more on future prospects rather than past results. In addition, it also enables expected operating strategies to be included in the valuation as it allows varies business components to be valued separately.On the other hand, free cash flow theory has important implications for the leverage effect on a firms investment financing decisions. The FCF model implies that for an over-investor, an increase in leverage should lead to a reduction in unprofitable investment spending. Additional leverage will leave less amount of free cash flow at the discretion of the managers at the same time that it increases the intensity level at which the companys activities can be closely monitored. general investment will become more efficient as the firm substitutes contractually obligated debt service for negative net present value investments. Empirically, the reduction in unprofitable investment spending should contribute to an increase in the firms stock price that reflects the improved efficiency of managerial investment decisions.MethodologyFree Cash Flow (FCF) is the cash generated by the companys assets and it is forthcoming for distribution to all the shareholders. It is used to tracks the remaining operating cash flow availab le for the shareholders after laying out the money a firm required to expand or sustain its asset base. It is calculated by deducting Net Investment in operate Capital from Net operating(a) Profit after Tax (NOPAT), where NOPAT is calculated by deducting Income Tax Expenses from the Profit Lost before Interest and Tax (EBIT) and Net Investment in Operating Capital is obtained by using the Operating Capital at time t to minus the Operating Capital at time t-1. Operating Capital is calculated by adding up Net Operating Working Capital (NOWC) and Net fixed Assets, where NOWC is calculated by deducting Non-interest Bearing Current Liabilities from Operating Current Assets.The calculation for FCF is as followedFree Cash Flow (FCF) = Net Operating Profit after Tax (NOPAT) Net Investment in Operating Capitalwhere,NOPAT = Profit Loss before Interest and Tax (EBIT) Income Tax Expensesand,Net Investment in Operating Capital = Operating Capital at time t Operating Capital at time t-1wher e,Operating Capital = Net Operating Working Capital (NOWC) + Net fixed Assetswhere,NOWC = Operating Current Assets Non-interest bearing Current LiabilitiesCapital Asset Pricing ModelLiterature ReviewBasically, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is based on Markowitz (1959) and Tobin (1958), who introduced the riskiness-return portfolio theory. The prime implication of the CAPM is the mean-variance efficiency of the market portfolio. The efficiency of the market portfolio implies that the positive bilinear relationship between expected returns and market of imports is exists and only genus Beta is compete a significant role in explaining the expected returns of stocks. Several attempts have been done to test the implications of the CAPM using diachronic range of returns of securities and historical rate of return on a market index.The CAPM is relies on several assumptions with the fact that every investor wants to maximize the expected satisfaction of their wealth. An additio n to the risk evil is that all of them are having the same expectations towards the returns of the securities. The returns of the securities follow a normal distribution, which characterizes the phenomenon of homoscedasticity. Besides that, CAPM also assume that every investor is allowed to scoop out any amount of money at the risk free rate. Finally, there are no taxes or other barriers which lead to an imperfection of every market, that is, the market is assume to be in equilibrium and have a perfect competition among all the participants in the market.According to Grigoris and Stavross study in 2006, one of the earliest a posteriori studies that support the theory of CAPM is that of Black, Jensen and Scholes 1972. By using monthly data of return and portfolios rather than individual stocks, Black et al tested whether the cross-section of expected returns is linear in beta. By constructing a portfolio made up by an amount of securities, investors managed to diversify away most of the firm-specific risk, thus increasing the preciseness of the beta estimates and the expected rate of return of the portfolio. This approach eliminates the statistical problems that burn down from measurement errors in beta estimates. The data found to be unchanging with the predictions of the CAPM, at which the relationship between the average return and beta is close to linear and that portfolios with high (low) betas will have high (low) average returns.There is another classic empirical study that supports the theory conducted by Fama and McBeth in 1973. In the study, they examined whether there is a positive linear relation between average returns and beta. In addition, the author also investigated whether the squared value of beta and the volatility of asset returns can explain the residual variation in average returns across assets that are not explained by beta alone.There are several studies in the early 1980s suggested that there were deviations from the CAPM risk re turn trade-off due to other variables that affect this tradeoff. The objective of the studies was to find the lacking components that CAPM omitted in explaining the risk-return trade-off and to identify the variables that created those deviations. Banz 1981 tested the CAPM by examining whether the sizing of firms can explain the residual variation in average returns across assets that remain unexplained by the CAPMs beta. CAPM is being challenged by indicating that firm surface does explain the cross sectional-variation in average returns on a particular collection of assets better than beta. The author concluded that the average returns on stocks of downhearted firms were higher than the average returns on stocks of large firms, vice versa. This study has cognize as the size effect. The general reaction to Banzs 1981 findings, that CAPM may be missing some aspects of reality, was to support the view that although the data may suggest deviations from CAPM, these deviations are not as significant to invalidate the theory.Importance of the theories and implications on corporate financial decisions in MalaysiaCAPM, which is a theoretical representation of the financial markets behavior, can be used in the estimation of a companys cost of capital. contempt the limitations, the model can be a superior addition to the uninflected tool kit of financial manager. The modern financial theory relies on three major assumptions. First, we assume the participants in the securities market are dominated by rational, at which all the investors are risk averse. Risk-averse person often seek to maximize satisfaction from the returns on their investment. CAPM also assume a perfect competitive market, which is in the equilibrium. It means that the financial market is live with highly innovative and well informed buyers and sellers, meaning that the financial market has the characteristic of transparency. The third assumption implies that investors will choose to hold al ter portfolios, means that every investor wants to hold a portfolio that could reflects the stock market as a whole. Although it is impossible to own the market portfolio, it is relatively easy and tinny for investors to eliminate specific or unsystematic risk and construct a portfolio that tracks the stock market through diversification.Another significant problem is that, it is not possible for investors to borrow at the safe rate in the real world. This is because the risk associated with individual investor is particularly higher than the risk associated with the Government. This inability to borrow at the safe rate means that the slope of the SML is shallower in practice than in theory. However, CAPM is generally considered as a better method to calculate the cost of equity and it explicitly takes into account the sensitivity of a companys protective cover return to market risk. It is clearly superior to the WACC in providing discount rates to be used in investment appraisa l. Research has shown the CAPM to stand up well to criticism, although the arguments against CAPM have been increasing in the recent years.Investment managers in Malaysia have widely applied CAPM as well as its sophisticated character as the investment valuation metric. CAPMs application to corporate finance is the recent development. Although it has been employed in many utility rate-setting proceedings, it has yet to gain widespread use in corporate circles for estimating companies cost of equity.MethodologyThe Capital Asset Pricing Model indicates a simple linear relationship between expected rate of return and systematic risk or market risk of a security or portfolio. The model is an extension of Markowitzs (1952) portfolio theory. The researchers who are commonly credited with the CAPM development are Sharpe (1964), Linter (1965) and Black (1972) and that is the reason CAPM is normally referred as SLB model. Markowitz (1952) developed a concept of portfolio efficiency through the combination of risky assets that minimizes risk for a given return or maximizes return for a given risk. Variance of expected returns has been used as the measure of risk and then the efficient portfolio will be developed to minimize risk for a given rate of return.The equation of CAPM indicates the relationship between cost of capital and market returns. The general idea shtup CAPM is that investors need to be compensated for two reasons time value of moneyand risk. The time value of money is represented by the risk-free rate, Rfin the equation and investors are being compensated for the forgone opportunity cost and time value of money due to their investment over a period of time. The other half of the equation represents the risk and the risk aid is the compensation for the investors for taking on any additional risk. It is calculated by using a risk measure (Beta) to the market premium (Rm-rf).The calculation of CAPM is as followedRi = Rf + ( Beta * Market Risk Premium )wh ere,Market Risk Premium = Rm Rfwhere,Ri = return on equity or portfolioRm = return on the market portfolioRf = return on risk-free assetBeta = sensitivity of security or portfolio to the systematic riskThe equation indicates that the expected rate of return on asset i is equal to the rate of return on the risk-free asset irrefutable a risk premium. The risk premium is calculated by multiplying beta with the difference between the expected rate of the return of the market portfolio and the risk-free rate. Risk free rate can be obtained from the return on Malaysian Treasury bill at particular time of the stock trading while beta can be calculate from the historical prices of stock and the market and the market return can be calculated based on the market index. To calculate the beta value, we need to first calculate the covariance of the security and the market. Second, we need to calculate the variance from market return. Next, we need to divide covariance of the particular securit y and market by variance of market to obtain the value of beta.
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